Nuclear Zone hypothesis
- (Robert Braidwood)
- Hypothesis that domestication and agriculture occured in the foothills of mountains because theres an abundent of plants.
Childes term for the change from hunting and gathering to agriculture
A state of interdependence between humans and selected plants and animal species. Intense selection activity induces permanent genetic change, enhanciing a species value to humans.
Cultural activities associated with planting, herding, and processing domesticated species.
Mutually advantageous association of two different organisms, also known as mutualism.
Symbiosis. "Sym"= together "Bios"= life)
Permanent springs or water holes in an arid region
The notion that certain cultural outcomes can be predicted from, or are determined by, a combination of purely environmental causes.
farming method in which only hand tols are used; tyical of most neolithic societies
Pertaining to the size or rate of increase of human populations
The short stem by which an individual seed attatches to the main stalk of a plant as it developes.
a plant that is wholly dependent on humans, a domesticate
Referrin to the analysis and interpretation of the remains of ancient plants recovered from the archaeological record.
Small grained cereal grasses native to asia and africa
a cereal grass. some subspecies are grown for food grains, others for juicy stalk
species of tropical plant with an edible starchy root
"Linned pottery" refers to a neolithic ceramic ware widel found in central europe.
Seed bearing member of the genus "Chenopodium" cultivated by early peruvians
Southern mexican state bordering the pacific ocean
A mexican state located on the gulf coast south of texas
A dry highland region on the boundary of the states of Puebla and Oaxaca in southern mexico
The native grass thought to be ancestral to maize
Periodic climate instability, related to temporary warming of pacific ocean waters, which may influence storm patterns and rain for several years.
Prehistoric farming culture of southern arizona
Prehistoric village culture of northern mexico and aouthern arizona
Hypothesis involving demographic stresses. People became packed together in regions as a result of environmental changes. this lead to competition and a more variation in food.
"packing model" ---Binford
-mesolithic and epipaleolithic sites
At the end of the last ice age, the near east got very dry and arid which caused people and animals to clutter in fertile areas...animals eventually become domesticated. It was the first evidence of domestication in mountains.
Oasis theory- Gordon Childe
"Epipaleolithic", near eastern culture began cultivating cereals, taking control of animals and establishing sedentary settlements afetr 12 kya.
Late pleistocene/ early halocene period containing foragers and gatherers n the near east and asia.
Cultural hypothesis, status promoted food production. Local chiefs gain status and power with big feasts, competing with eachother.
(Brian Hayden) Feasting Model
Ceremonial even where the village chief publicly gives away food and goods signifying wealth. Also an opportunity to redistribute surplus foods and goods amoing people in response to shortage
Cultural activity, all activities associared with planting, herding, processing domesticates plants and animals
Evolutionary process, state of interdependence betweeen humans and selected plant/animal species; requires genetic transformation of wild species.
Domesticated maize VS. Teosinte (wild corn)
Domesticated maize has : Tougher rachis, reduced gkume (outter coveriing of the seed), larger seeds, increased cob length, and more seed rows.
What are some indirect evidence from technology and human remains
- - Dental Caries cavities from starchy foods
- -natufian grinding toold
- -Natufian gazelle horn sickel
Natufians located in this region, began domesticating plants and animals
West bank area, possibly wolrds oldest city with watch towers and large walls. specialized trade or religious activities promoted early development into relatively large and complex neolithic commmunities. . Not considerd an urban center/city/state
Form of farming aroun 7 kya. Bredding/ managing large herds of domesticated herbivores
This forced humans and animals to live along the nile river in africa
Old world farming in _____area :
- Interdependent domestication same time as near easst
- Increased sedentism, complex material culture, social stratification
- wetland rice., millet, pigs, water buffalo, chicken
Farming was brought into europe by either of these two mechanisms:
- 1) brought bby neolithic immigrants from near east
- 2) adoption of farming by local european mesolithic groups.
- Spread of agriculture was faster in old world, pl emphasized domesticating plants in the new world.
- - Mesoamerica= maize, beans, squash, peppers
- -S. America= potatoes, peanuts, cotton
- - N. America= gourds and sunflower
4 kya, this continent was a mosaic of chiefdoms ( regional political societies in whcih hereditary chiefs rules over a ranked heiarchy)
Chiefdoms into complex societies and empires in these regions
Mesoamerican and south america
Mesoamerican chiefdom; includes San Lorenzo and La Venta
Geographically strategic plateau which allowed for wide range trade networkds. Dominant olmec center in gulf of mexico
Important olmec center that was established after the decline of San Lorenzo. Earthen mounds, plazas, redidential housing, large Anthromorphic basalt heads & columns
Major mya citiy-states
Takal, Copan, Palenque
Society which used math, writing, calendars, astronomy,temple pyramids, pollychrome pottery, shifting political alliances, and warfare
This classic maya city held 5,00 structures. Its inscriptions on stela ( stone slabs) help trace dynasty, it held a strategic posistion for trade, religious temples, great plaza, used bloodletting
One of the largest cities in the world. Strategically placed on trade routes NW of the maya area & controlled obsidian. 600 pyramid like structures, workshops, market places. Pyramid of moon, sun, and avenue of trhe dead
This empire grew in power after the fall of teotihuacan unbtill the spanish conquest in the year 1519.
The aztec Empire
Aztec capital city located on an island in lake texoco (mexico). Had huge walled ceremonial central plaza of temples, shrines & ball courts. pop= 1mmillion
Characteristics of the Aztecs
- kept codiacs ( illustrated books)
- social stratification ( kind rules & controlled other states)
- human sacrafice & blood letting were used to praise deities
This area held the earliest complex centers that are contemporary with egyptian pyramids. Two societies: Coral ( 1,00 yrs older than any other society in the americas) and Moche
- North coast of peru
- potters, metallurgists
moche site. evidence of ritual one on one combat & sacrafice amoing moche elite.
70 skeletons found mostly males
murals depict human sacrafice
Cerro Blanco (Huaca de la Luna)
This civilization used stone temples, plazas, houses ect.
-had a cuzco ( political & economic ritual center)
-the city plan was in the shape of Puma ( the head fortress). -had a golden temple.
-Used a recording system based on Quipa (Knotted cords which ahvnt been interpreted yet)
- Chicha: maize beer
15th century Peru. A carfeully planned inca town in Peru with plazas, temples, residences, stone watter channels &cisterns
This person ranked humans in a heiarchial format based on skin color
This person added the term "caucasian" also ranked society according to skin color
These two people ranked humans in a heiarchial format based on skull size. Connected skull size with race & superiority
brocca & Morton
This person ranked humans based on blood type.
Traits that are influenced by two or more genes. Allow a wide range of physical traits such as eye color, skin color, weight and height.
Species composed of populations that differ with regard to the expression of one or more traits. Ex: Homo sapiens
why is race not a valid concept from a genetic perspective?
- -a lack of polymorphic loci variations amoung humans. Loci= ( the portion of dna that determines dissimilarity)
- - Needs to be 20% variation in a species but humans have 2.3%
The concept that various aspects of behavior are giverned by biological/ genetic factors.
--Assiciating behanviors to skin and hair color
The philosophy of 'race improvement", the sterilization of members of some groups & increased reproduction of others.
This biological determinist supported govnt control of marriages and family size
Supported polices of segregation & apartheid of people with "disgenic traits" in order to protect the well born from contamination
The american Eugenics movement
In this court case, a woman and her mother was sterilized because she had an illegitimate child. Supreme court justice Oliver Homes
Buck VS. Bell
pre-implantation genetic selection (PGS). embryo testing for tissue matching (prodcue baby for donor purposes)
32 acre site in south central turkey. Larger and later city than jericho. Served as a trade & religious center during neolithic times .
Catalhoyuk "forked mound"
Contemporary settlements which remained modest villages.
jarmo (iraq), Cayonu (Turkey), and Hacilar (Turkey)
a governmental entity that persists by politically controlling a territory. has social classes, concept of citizenship, bureacracies, use of force, and other types of governing and institutions
The larger social order that includes states related by langueage, traditions, history, economic ties, and other shared cultural aspects
Urban centers that both support and are supported by a hinterland of lesser communities. social complexity, nonkin organization and the concentration of specizlized agricultural roles.
Earliest true city yet discovered, in southern Iraq. Associated with the sumerian civilization of the southern Tigris-Euphrates Valley. Had remnants of massive mud brick temples and housing ( housed tens of thousands of ppl)
This person described the evolution of political society as one that in its simplist form is egalitarian. (Paleolithic hunter gatherer groups are egalitarian)
Examples of ranked societies. These are not "class" societies
neolithic farming villages in the near east and mississippian chiefdoms in eastern N.America
Example of stratified society
Natchez, which is a native american group of west mississippi; this society was rigidly heiarchial.
This person specified traits that he believed contributed to the evolution of early civilizations. Said civilization was an outgrowth of increasing productivity, social complexity, and economic advantage
Land between the Tigris and Euphrates rivers, mostly included in modern day Iraq
mesopotamia. "middle river"
Early culture of mesopotamia; predecessor to sumerian civilization. barley, wheat, milleta and vegetable crops were used. cultural uniformity
- Towns: Nippur, eridu, Uruk.
- centered around a platform based temple, had shrines. decorated pottery, obsidian..ect.
- irrigation systems & concentrated populations
urban centers that form autonomous sociopolitical units
Uruk makred the beginning of this first complex civilization in mesopotamia
This region held about a dozen large autonomous political units called city states in the southern most Tigris-Euphrates Valley.
- urbanized and technological culture
- economically dependent of large sclae agriculture & specialization.
Wedged Shape writing of ancient mesopotamia.
early babylonian king
Late babylonian King, reclaimed dominance of ancient mesopotamian lands after hammurabi
The Narmer Palette
Commemorating the unification of upper & lower egypt under pharaoh Narmer,
Old kingdom pyramid complex and great sphinx; located southwest of cairo
Valley of the Kings
desert valley near thebes. more than 50 New Kingdom pharoahs tombs are found
(king Tut) Egyptian pharoah of the New Kingdom period, died at age 19
a 425 year span that represented the firtst full flowering of the Nile Vally civilization.
The Old Kingdom
A form of state political organization with multiple administrative centers and one or more capitals. cities housed the elite and administrative classes, everyone else lived in surrounding areas.
- (harrapan/indus civilization) collection of urban settlements that dotted a broad floodplain far to the east.
- For centuries, the indus river valley supported at least five primary urban centers.
- trade was the integrative forse behind indus urbanization.
- elaborate middle class society..nothign extravagant.
- Large indus site in pakistan
- raised on massive brick terraces above the river
- first efficient sewer systems
- decline very rapid
- Northern China, known as the dawn of chinese civilization.
- -walled palaces set above ground is first seen here, royal burilas, stone carvings
- Followed the Xia Dynasty. 6 centuries....had a level of sophistication in material culture, architecture, art styles, and writing. chinas first civilization.
- -unlike the Indus civilization, the Shang territorial state covered multiple cities and a large territorial state
4,00 years ago, this continent was a mosaic of chiefdoms
- -Mesoamerican chiefdom
- - san lorenzo and la venta
- Geographically strategic location allowed for trade networks
- -dominant olmec center in gulf of mexico
- -decline led to la venta
- -Olmec center after decline of San Lorenzo\
- -housing, earthen mounds, human life shapes of humans made from basalt heads (anthromorphic)
- Major maya city states: Tikal, Palenque, Copan
- -math, writing, calendars, shifting political systems, aliiances, warfare.
- -5,000 structures
- -Guatemala, largest classic maya city
- -inscriptions on stela (stone slabs) that trace dynasty
- - strategic posistion for trade
- -temples emphasized religious importance
- -One f the largest cities in the world
- -strategically located-> trade routes controlled obsidian
- -600 pyramid structures
- **pyramid of sun, moon and avenue of the dead.
- -After fall of teotihuacan, then declined at spanish conquest
- -capital: tenochtitlan
- -Aztec capital located on lake texcoco in mexico
- -huge walled ceremonial central plaza of temples, shrines, ball courts.
- - pop i million
- -codiacs, social stratification, human scrafice to praise deities.
South American civilizations
Caral, Moche, Cerro Blanco, Inca, Machu Pichu
- South american civilization
- 1,000 years older than any other civilization in the americas
- south american civilization
- n coast of peru
- pottery portrait jobs
- -moche site
- -evidence of ritual one on one combat and sacrafice amoung moche elite
- - 70 skeletons all males found
- -cuzo = political economic ritual center
- -city plan was shape of puma, head=fortress
- - GOLDEN TEMPLE, religious focal point
- - QUIPA: recording system with knotted chords
- -CHICHA: maize beer
- -water canals
- 15th century peru
- carefully planned Inca town
- -arised after fall of mayan civilization teotihuacan.
- -very poer, very presitgious
- -capital: Tula
- -commerical & military enterprise, trade routes
- -drought & aztecs led to fall
-Non state theocracy in south central peru near the coast.
- -Kingdom of north coast peru in Moche valley
- - advanced burial ceremonies
What are the subfields of anthropology
cultural, biological/physical, archaeological, and linguistic.
what is biological evolution?
any change in % between generations
The father of genetics...founded this type of inheritance
Gergor mendel..mendelian inheritance. used pea plants to explore how phenotypes are expressed
why is mendel genetics important?
- -provides info missing from darwins theory
- -confirms evolution
- -conserves variation
- -difference between phenotype and genotype
a signle gene might many effects.
Principles of segregation
genes occur in pairs that separate during meiosis. (cell division that makes gametes; sex chromosomes)
Principles of Independent assortment
genes dont arent always inherited together
both genes expressed in phenotype
Study of skeletal material.
branch of osteology that studies the traces of disease and injury in human skeletons
Three hypothesis about life and the world that took place before the scientific revolution
- Youth: world is very young
- Design: world designed to have structure and order
- Stasis: all life created as it exists in present (fixity of species)
- Fullness: worl=complete, no new species can enter world or become extinct.
Great chain of being
- -Scala naturae
- -heiarchial ranking of matter and life
- -chain= fixed, objects cant change posistion
new ideas=rejected (heliocentricsm) and the development of new ideas
- developed concept of species.
- also recognized that species frequently shared similarities with other species, which he grouped together in another in genus's
- -Developed method to classify plants and animals that became basis for taxonomy
- -system of natue
- -established system of Binomial nomenclature
- -added two categories:class and order.
- -explained evolutionary process
- -enviroment affects species.
- -inheritance of acquired characteristics
- -Introduced the concept of extinction to explain the
- dissapearnce of species represented by fossils.
- -used theory of fixity of species
- -theory of catastrophism
- -founder of modern geology
geological processes observed in the present are the same as those that occured in the past
genus and species names are used to refer to species
branch of science concerned with the rules of classifying organisms on the basis of evolutionary relationships
- - theorized that species were descended from other species, and the appearance of new species was due to environmental factors.
- -evolution driven by competition and natural selection
Groupd of individuals that mate with eachother. variation within a population helps us measure and track evolution.
What is vairation and what are the two types
- - inherited diff amoung individuals.
- -Discrete: present or absent
- -Continuous: measurable, polygenetic
What is a mutation
- -an unpredictable change in DNA
- -only way to produce new genes (hemoglobin&sickle cell)
- -increases diversity
- -random evolutionary changes; no new genes added to pop., gene frequencies are altered.
- -Founder Effect
- - Bottle neck
Loss of genetic variation when a new population is established by a small number of individuals from a larger population
even in which great % of a population is prevented from producing (decrease in genetic variation in a species)
- - Decreases diversity
- -random exchange of genes between populations
- relies on four things:
- - overproduction of offspring
- - competition of resources
- -genetic variation
- -differential reproduction (some survive, some die)
- selection acts against extremes, favors avg traits in a population
- ex: baby weights being not too big or small
favors one extreme phenotype away from another extreme
favors both extremes over the avg
Biological Species Concept
- -Group of interbreeding populations thats reproductively isolated from other groups.
- -must be able to produce offspring that can reproduce.
- (horse&donkey-->mule is put into diff species)
process by which a new species evolves from an earlier one...requires isolation
speciation by geographic isolatioin
physical similarities amooung organisms that are shared through common evolutionary descent ( humerous bone in whales and humans)
similarities amoung organisms based strictly on common function not descent
- -Leads to analagies
- -the separate evolutionary development of similar characteristics in differnet groups of animals.
- -traditional approach to classification
- -evolutionary relationships between species depicted using a phyloggenetic tree
- -phylogeny chart
- -shows evolutionary relationships
- -contains time factor
- -iploes ancestral-descendent relationships
evolutionary relationships depicted in a cladogram
focuses on derived traits, diagram of evolutionary relationships with no time factor
present in descendent but not ancestor (bipedal humans but not apes)
a homology thats present in both ancestor and descendent
a group of orgganisms that share a common ancestor
- - 2 genera: austrailopithecus (older) ¶nthropus
- -bipedal, small brained, large teeth w/ thick enamel, prognathic face
- -kenya, oldest species of austrailopithecines, thought to be ancestral to paranthropus
- - tibia shows evidence of bipedalism, finger bones are curved- climbed trees?
- - Ethiopia, and Tanzania
- -60-100 individuals found
- -reduced canine teeth & diff morphology in tooth rows, thick dental enamel
- -brain size smaller than chimps
- -sexually dimorphic
- footprints preserved in volcanic ash
- child found in Dikika ethiopia
- -S. Africa (youngest species of austrailopithecus)
- - new species, 4 individuals have been found
- -smaller brain than A.afarensis but similar in shape to H.sapiens
- S. African cave sites packed with bones
- taugh child found had a natural endocast
- Older, evolved within africa from earlier homo ancestor. populations left africa and gave rise to erectus
- - smaller brain
- -lighter built cranial bones &smaller browridgess
- larger brain
- robust/thick cranial bones
- larger browridges
- -Homo ergaster
- -large..tall limp proportions
- -"the old man"
- -small body compared to e. african ergaster (alike habilis)
- -very primitive stone tools
- -fossils found on volcanoe->potassium-argon analysis
- - 1st hominin to leave africa
H.erectus in China and indonesia
got there fast ans stayed a while
- H. erectus in china
- large brains w/ thick craniofacial bones
- -largest collection og H.erectus
- -associated with stone tools
H. ergaster & H. erectus
- -tool users
- - H.erectus probably derived from ergaster
- -have larger brains(like homo sapiens) and are taller
- -tools= reduction in teeth
pattern in which physiological and behavioral systems evolve at different times..
bipedalism, brain size, and toolmaking behaiviors
- Found in chad, and is found to be the dated earlier than the earliest supposed homidids.
- Fossil found had a combinatiion of charateristics of apes (small brain) and hominins (no protruding lower face)
- Central kenya in the tugen hills and from the middle awash area of ethiopia.
- about a million years later than sahelanthropus
- also bipedal locomotion
- middle awash in the Afar Triangle of ehtiopia
- last group thought to date to late micene (earlier than 5,000)
will be posistions more forward in bipedal
grouping of organisms sharing a similar adaptive pattern
Sites of oldowan tools
- -East africa
- -dmanisi georgia
- -Atapuerca in spain
Acheulian tool industry
- 1.4 million years ago- lower paleolithic
- - africa, near east
- - more diverse & complex
- -bifacial stone tools
- soft hammer percussion
Soft hammer percussion
a hammer made of flexible material is struck against a core. the flexible material absorbs some of the force,, giving the user greater control over the size and shape of the flakes
Oldowan tool industry
- -lower paleolithic
- - name comes from oldowan sites found at Olduvai gorge locations
- -hard hammer percussion
- -expedient tools
- -early Homo
- -Republic of Georgia
- -very early dispersal to southeastern europe of small bodied, small brained H.erectus.
beautifully preserved nearly complete skeleton, best postcranial evidence of h.erectus
- -plio-pleistocence hominin found from Olduvai gorge.
- -larger brain than austrailopiths
- -early olduvai tool makers
- -KNM-ER 1470 &1813
- -largest teeth=rough foods
- -sagittal crest, flat face, large jaw
- -1st member of this evolutionary group (clade) comes from lake Turkana in kenya "black skull"
- -smallest cranial capacity of hominins
- -mix of primitive &derived traits
- -paranthropus found in Lake Turkana
- -bcause of mixed characteristics, its placed between earlier A.afarensis and later Paranthropus
- -new specis--> paranthropus aethiopicus
- -small cranial capacity & large robust faces with massive teeth
- - since these somewhat later east african paranthropus follsils are so rubst, they are placed in own species
primates such as gorillas have this, in which their canine cuts food
40% complete skelton of adult female A.afarensis, found in east africa
robust australopithecine from south africa that may have descended from a. afarensis was contemporaneous with a. boisei and had robust cranial traits of large teeth, large face and heavy muscle attachments
early homo species and likely descendant of h. habilis; first hominid species to move out of africa into asia and europe
stone tool culture in which neandertals produced tools using levallois technique
middle part of old stone age, associated with mousterian tools, neandertals produced using levallois technique
distinctive method of stone tool production used during middle paleolithic, core was prepared and flakes removed from surface before final tool was detached from core.