Contrast existentialism (indeterminism) from determinism.
- Existentialism( indeterminism)
- basically means existence, human existence to be exact. it's a reaction against Descartes "I think there for i am" instead the exisentialsits say "i exist ...therefore i think."
We exist first as physical bodies and later on we think about our own existence. human existence is equivalent to freedom. Man by nature is free at that we responsible for the choices that we are making.
- contends that man by nature is not free. Freedom is a illusion. Follows the principal for universal caucastion- that in every effect there is a cause.
Contrast Sartre’s concept of bad faith from good faith.
- Bad faith-
- is when a person makes a choice but does not face the consequences of his or her choice. he blames other people or situations instead of blaming themselves.
- Good faith-
- is when a person makes a choice and faces its respoonsibilities.
Contrast hard determinism from soft determinism.
- Soft determinism-
- freedom is compatible with determinism
- combination of freedom and determinism.
Contrast Marcel’s concept of “problem” from “mystery.”
- is that which is being dealt with by the concrete sciences (math physics chem, bio etc)
- deals with something measurable and that which can be calculated. can be solved.
- is that which is being dealt with by religion and god.
- cant be calculated, meausred or even experimented, can't be solved.
Contrast Kierkegaard’s subjective from objective reality. For what reason why he believes that “religion/God” has to be in the realm of subjective knowledge?
- illogical, irrational, subjective or personal belief of "something"
- rational, logical, empirical and is based on scientific methods or things.
God/ Religion is in the realm of subjectivity.
Contrast monotheism and polytheism from non-theism; examples of each.
- belief in one god.
- ex Christianty, Islam, Judaism
- PolytheismBelief in many gods.
- ex: Hinduism
- Non-theismNo mention of God/Gods but a stress on spirituality and not necssarily "religiosity"
Contrast St. Anselm’s ontological proof in proving God’s existence from Rene Descartes’.
- Rene Descartes'
- God by definition is perfect. its more perfect to exist than to not exist. therefore to conceive of god as a perfect being it is necssarily to conceieve of him as existing (because to conceive of god as not existing is self cancelling)
- therefore to say "God does not exist" is necessarily ture.
Contrast the ontological/analytic/rationalist argument for God’s existence from the cosmological/synthetic/empiricist’s.
- an argument that is based on ppurely reasoning. the rationlist or analytic arument for gods existence. ontology.
- cosmological/synthetic/empiricist’s.argument based on the science or study of the physical material universe.
Familiarize Aquinas’ arguments on motion (the Unmoved Mover), causation (the Uncaused Cause) and necessity for God’s existence.
- Arguments on motion
- it is evident to our senses that in the world somehting's are in motion. now whatever is in motion is put in motion by another or whatever is moved has to bmoved by another, for it is impossible for a moving object to be moved by itself.
- but this movement acnnot go on forever because then there would be no first mover, and consequently no other mover.
- Therefore it is necessary to arrive at a first mover, put in motion by other; this is understood to be God.
- God is thought of as the uncaused cause.
- everyting that exists can also not esixts so this means that everything that existed (an uncaused cause) and thus god is so.
How did the following philosophers resolve the issue on God and the problem of evil?
a) John Stuart Mill e) St. Augustine b) David Hume f) St. Thomas Aquinas c) John Hick
- John Mill.
- he says there is no God because of the absollute contradiciton between God and the evil things that are happening in this world.
- David Hume
- if there is a god then is is an imperfect being- the imperfections of this world are probably a reflection of his own imprection. and the perfection of this world if any is probably a relection of his own perfection.
- John Hick
- believes that the purpose of suffering is the perfection of our souls. the world is not intended to be a paradise where we are sheltered from all dangers and challenges in this life. ONly by participatin in the hazardous life and overming temptations can we become the perfected moral creatures of God.
- St. Augustine.
- since god is the highest good, he would not allow any evil to exist in his works, unless his omipotence and goodness were such as to bring good even out of evil. This part of his Infinite Goodness.
- St Thomas Aquinas
- God has decided to endow us with free will a tremendous gift that gives humans the freedom of choice between love of god and hatred of him.
- God created us as human beings and not as preprogrammed computers.
- In his infinite goodness, he desired the free love of humanity over forced obedience to his will. For love cannot be foreced it must be given by desire and choice.