unit 10

  1. what are the 4 regions of the brain?
    • cerebral hemisphere (cerebrum)
    • diencephalon
    • brain stem : mid brain pons medulla
    • cerebellum
  2. where is grey matter located?
    and what does it contain?
    • it is centrally located
    • contains nuclei
  3. where is white matter located?
    what does it contain?
    • externally located
    • contains tracts
  4. the ventricles are filled with _______ amd lined with _______.
    • CSF
    • ependymal cells
  5. the 3rd ventricle is in the _________,it connects with the __________ ventricles by the ____________ _________.
    • diencephalon
    • lateral
    • intervetricular foramen
  6. what connects the 3rd and 4th ventricles?
    cerebral aqueduct
  7. where does the 4th ventricle lie?
    and what does it connect to?
    • lies in the hind brain
    • connects to the central canal and spinal cord
  8. what divides the cerebrum in to lobes?
    the sulci and fissures
  9. what are the names of the lobes of the cerebrum?
    • frontal lobe
    • parietal lobe
    • occpital lobe
    • temporal lobe
    • insular lobe (insula)
  10. what are the sulci?
    grooves on the surface of th ecerebral hemispheres "valleys"
  11. what does the central sulcus separate?
    frotnal and parietal lobes
  12. what does the parieto-occiptal sulcus separate?
    it separates parietal and occiptal lobes
  13. what does the lateral sulcus separate?
    the temporal lobe from parietal and frontal lobe
  14. what are gyri?
    twisted ridges between suci "mountins"
  15. where is the precentral gyrus?
    anterior to the central sulcus
  16. where is the postcentral gyrus?
    posterior to central sulcus
  17. what are fissures?
    deep groves that separate regions of the brain
  18. what does the transverse cerebral fissure separate?
    the cerebrum and cerebellum
  19. what does the longitudinal fissure separate?
    cerebral hemisphere
  20. what are the 3 things the cerebral cortex enable us to do?
    • be aware of ourselves, and our sensations
    • initiate and control voluntary movements
    • communicate remember and understand
  21. what is the home of our conscious mind?
    the cerebral cortex
  22. what is the cerebral cortex composed of?
    it is approx __% of the brains mass.
    • grey matter
    • 40%
  23. what parts are included in the frontal lobe?
    • motor cortex
    • prefrontal cortex
    • Broca's area
  24. what 2 things does the motor cortex contain? and what do they do?
    • primary motor cortex :excutes movement
    • pre motor cortex: plans movement
  25. what does the prefrontal cortex do?
    • preforms cognitive functions
    • all aspects of thinking and percieving
    • remembering and recalling info
    • also related to mood
  26. what does Broca's area do?
    manages speech
  27. what parts does the parietal lobe contain?
    somatosensory cortex

    and half of Wernicke's area
  28. what does the somasensory coretx contain?
    and what does it do?
    • contains the primary somatosensory cortex
    • which receives general somatic sensory input.
    • contains the somatosensory association area
    • which integrates general somatic sensory input
    • contains half of Wernick's area
    • manages and understanding of speech
  29. what does the occipital lobe contain?
    the visual cortex
  30. what does the visual cortex contain? and what does it do?
    • contains the
    • primary visual cortex:which recieves visual sensory input
    • contains visual association area: integrates special visual sensory input
  31. what parts does the temporal lobe contain?
    • the auditory area
    • other half of Wernicke's area
  32. what does the primary auditory cortex do?
    what does the auditory association area do?
    • receives special auditory sensory input
    • integrates special auditory sensory input
  33. where is the insular lobe (insula)?
    and what does it do?
    • "hidden lobe" deep in the temporal lobe
    • function in language and sense of balance
    • viseral sensation e.g.: upset tummy full bladder
  34. what does the gustatory cortex do?
    receives the input of taste stimuli
  35. wher are tracts found?
    in the white matter of the CNS
  36. what is dicussation?
    cross over (the rt hemisphere controls the left side of the body
  37. are the ascending and decending tracts motor or sensory?
    • ascending: sensory
    • decending:motor
  38. what do projection axons do?
    connect the cortex with the spinal cord
  39. what does the commissural axons do?
    connect the 2 hemispheres via the corpus callosum
  40. what does the association axons do?
    connects the lobes within one hemisphere there is no decussation
  41. what are basal nuclei?
    collections of neuro cell bodies in teh CNS invloved in motor control
  42. what is the diencephalon composed of?
    what does it inlcude?
    • composed of gray matter
    • includes the thalamus, hypothalamus, and epithalamus
  43. the thalamus makes up __% of the diencepalon.
    t contains a ___ nuclei it relays incoming sensory messages that ____ or _____down signals
    • 80%
    • dozen
    • amplify
    • tone
  44. the hypothalamus is the main _____ _______ of the body
  45. what are the functions of the hypothalamus?
    • controls autonomic nevous sytem
    • controls emotional response
    • regulates body temp
    • regulates hunger and thirst
    • controls behavior
    • regulates sleep cycle
    • controls endocrine system
    • formation of memory
  46. what does the epithalamus form and what does it contain?
    • forms the roof of the 3rd ventricle
    • contains the pineal gland
  47. what does the pineal gland do?
    produces melatonin to help regulate the sleep wake cycle
  48. what does the brain stem contain?
    • mid brain
    • pons
    • medulla oblongata
  49. what does the cerebrsl aquaduct do?
    carries CSF from the 3rd vetricle to teh 4th
  50. what is the corpora quadrigemina/
    the largerst nuclei of the CNS
  51. what does the pons contain?
    the nuclei of the cranial nerves V, VI, VII
  52. properties of the medulla oblongata?
    • continous with the spinal cord
    • contains nuclei that influence ANS functions
    • contains cranial nerves VIII-XII
    • contains visceral centers
  53. whats is included in viseral centers?
    • cardiac centers
    • respiratory center
    • centers for hiccuping sswallowing coughing
  54. what are the functions of the cerebellum/
    • smoothes and coordinates body movements
    • helps maintain equilibrium
    • consists of 3 cerebellar hemispheres
  55. what 3 regions is the cerebellum composed of?
    • cerebellar cortex :gray matter
    • arbor vitae :internal white matter
    • deep cerebellar nuclei: gray matter within the white matter
  56. the cerebellum reveives info:
    • on equilibrium
    • on current movementsof limbs neck trunk
    • from the
    • cerebral cortex
  57. what are the cerebellar penduncles?
    • thick tracts connecting the ceerebellum to the brain stem
    • fibers to and from teh cerebellum are ipsilateral (run to and from teh same side of the body
  58. what protects the brain?
    • the skull
    • meninges
    • CSF
    • blood brain barrier
  59. what do the meninges do? and what do they contain?
    • protect: brain and spinal cord
    • contain: CSF
  60. whta is the dura matter?
    outtermost layer strongest of the meninges
  61. what does the subarachnoid sace contain?
    the CSF
  62. where is the arachnoid matter located?
    beneth the dura matter
  63. what is the pia matter?
    innermost layer clings tightly to the surface of the brain
  64. where is CSF formed?
    in the choroid plexus of the brain ventricles
  65. what does the blood brain barrier do?
    prevents blood bourne toxins from entering the brain
  66. what protects the spinal cord?
    • the vertebre
    • meninges
    • CSF
  67. what does the spinal cord run through?
    the vertebral canal of teh vertebral column
  68. gray matter of the spinal cord and _____ _____, contain clusters of_______ ___ ____ called ______.
    • spinal roots
    • neuron
    • cell
    • bodies
    • nuclei
  69. internal gray matter is shaped like the ____ __or a _______/
    • letter H
    • butterfly
  70. what does gray commissure contain?
    the central canal with CSF
  71. what does the ventral (anterior) horns contain?
    cell bodies of motor neurons
  72. what does dorsal (posterior) horns consist of?
  73. what doe white matter of the spinal cord contain?
    collections of axons called tracts
  74. what is funiculi made up of?
    columns of whitematter wit ascending and decending tracts
  75. what are the 3 funiculi?
    • anterior
    • posterior lateral
  76. what is MS?
    • autoimmune disease attacks mylein
    • not really untertood
    • cause weak muscle contraction
    • muscle atrophy
  77. what is a contusion?
    marked distruction of brsin tissue brusing of the brain
  78. what is a stroke?
    • blockage of blood flow to a brain region
    • numbness on one side of the body
  79. what is alzheimer's disease?
    progressive degenerative disease leading to dementia
  80. what is quadriplegia?
    • injury to spinal cord in teh cervical region
    • paralysis to 4 limbs
  81. what is parapegia?
    injury to spinal cord between T1 and L2 paralysis of lower limbs
  82. what is anencephly?
    • no brain missing cerebrum ans cerebellum
    • death occurs shortly after death
  83. what is spinal bifida?
    • forked spine
    • no veterbral lamina
  84. what is cerebral palsy?
    • lack of blood flow to fetus damaged cerebral motor cortex
    • voluntary muscle poor control
  85. what is parkinsons?
    deterioration of the basal nuclei of the brain leads to loss of cells that produce dopamine which leads to poor motor control tremors poor balance
  86. what is huntingtons disease?
    • inherited disease
    • over stimulation of motor activity
    • unitiated or uncontrolled movements
  87. what is tourette's syndrome?
Card Set
unit 10
unit 10