1. Pathology
    The study of disease
  2. Etiology
    The study of the cause of a disease
  3. Pathogenesis
    The development of disease
  4. Infection
    Colonization of the body by pathogenes
  5. Disease
    An abnormal state in which the body is not functioning normally
  6. Epidemiology
    The study of the movement and transmission of disease
  7. Normal Microbiota
    • Permanenitly colonize host but dont cause disease.
    • Type and location of organism all depends on micro enviroment.
  8. Microbial antagonism
    • The competition between microbes.
    • Normal microbiota protects body against invaders by adjusting different levels.
  9. Transient microbiota
    May be present for days, weeks, or months.
  10. Symbiosis
    Is the relastionship between normal microbiota and the host
  11. Mutualism
    Both the human and microbe benifit
  12. Probiotics
    Typically lactic acid producing bacteria ingested to aid digestion and protect intestine from pathogens
  13. Parasitism
    One organism benifits at the expense the other (pathogens)
  14. Pathogen
    Disease causing microbe, not typically part of normal microbiota.
  15. Opportunistic pathogens
    Take advantage of a weaked immune system to cause disease.
  16. Robert Koch 1877
    • First to link particular microbe with a disease.
    • Etiology.
    • Kock's Postulates.
  17. Kock's Postulates
    • 1. Same pathogen must be present in every cse of diease.
    • 2. Pathogen must be isolated and grown in pure culture.
    • 3. Pathogen from culture must cause same disease in newly inoculated animal.
    • 4. Pathogen must be isolated from inoculated animal and must be proven to be original pathogen.
  18. Kosh's Problems
    • Not all diseases can be cultured.
    • Some pathogens cause many diseases.
    • Some pathogens can only cause disease in humans and not in test animals.
  19. Symptom
    A change in body function that is felt by patient and a result of disease.
  20. Sign
    A change in a body that can be measured or observed as a result of disease.
  21. Syndrome
    A specific group of signs ans symptoms that accompany a disease
  22. Communicable disease
    A disease that is spread from one host to another
  23. Contagious disease
    A disease that is easily spread from one host to another measured on a degree scale
  24. Non-communicable disease
    I disease that is not transmitted from on host to another.
  25. Incidence
    Fraction of a population that contracts a disease during a specific time
  26. Prevalence
    • Fraction of the population having a specific disease at a given time
    • AIDS
  27. Sporadic disease
    • Disease that occurs occasionally in a population
    • FLU
  28. Endemic disease
    Disease constantly present in a population
  29. Epidenic disease
    Disease acquired by many hosts in a given area in a short time
  30. Pandemic disease
    Worldwide epidemic
  31. Herd immunity
    • Immunity in most of a population
    • Vaccination sched. to protect population
  32. Acute disease
    Symptoms develope rapidly, common cold
  33. Chronic disease
    Disease develops slowly, turberculosis
  34. Subacute disease
    Symptoms between acute and chronic, endocarditis
  35. Latent disease
    Disease with a period of no symptoms when the causative agent is inactive, shingles
  36. Local infection
    Pathogens are limited to a small area of the body, abscesses
  37. Systemic infections
    An infection throughout the body, measles
  38. Focal infection
    Systemic infection that began as a local infection, tooth infection
  39. Sepsis
    Toxic inflammatory condition arising from the spread of microbes especially bacteria or their toxins
  40. Systemis infections 4
    • Bacteremia
    • Septicemia
    • Toxemia
    • Viremia
  41. Primary infection
    Acute infection that causes the initial illness
  42. Secondary infection
    Opportunistic infection after a primary infection
  43. Subclinic disease
    No noticeable signs or symptoms, hepatitis A
  44. Predisposing factors
    • Makes body more susceptible to disease
    • age, fatige, short urethra, lifestyle
  45. Incubation period
    Interval between initial infection and first appearance of symptoms
  46. Prodromal period
    Short period following incubation with mild diseaase symptoms
  47. Period of illness
    Highest severity of disease symptoms, sometimes resulting in death
  48. Period of convalescence
    Body returns to previous condition
  49. Reservoir
    Continual source of infection
  50. Carriers
    Many have in-apparent infections or latent disease (humans)
  51. Zoonoses
    Transmission from animal to human (animal) rabies
  52. Non-living reservoirs
    Environmental reservoir water nad soil
  53. Direct Contact
    Requires association between infected and suseptible host (person to person)
  54. Indirect contact
    Spread by fomites (non-living objects)
  55. Droplet contact
    Transmition via airborne droplets
  56. Vehicle transmission
    Transmission by food, water, air, IV fluids, drugs, body fluids
  57. Vectors
    • Any agent (person, animal, or microorganism) that carries and transmits an infectious agent
    • Flees, ticks, mosquitoes
  58. Mechanical transmission
    Passive transport of pathogens (carried on insect feet)
  59. Biological transmission
    Vector fufills portion os pathogens life cycle
  60. Nosocomial infections
    Are acquired as a result of a hospital stay
  61. Emergin Infectious Diseases
    EID disease that is new or changing, showing increase in incidence or a patential to increase
  62. Epidemiology
    Important for disease control on population
  63. Epideniologists
    • Disease occurrence
    • To whome age, race, sex ect
    • Mode of transmission
    • Reservoirs
    • Effective methods of control
  64. John Snow
    Showed how disease spread
  65. Ignaz Semmelweis
    Proper hand washing tech prevents spreading
  66. Florence Nightingale
    Showed improved sanitation decreased the incidence of epidemic
  67. Descriptive
    Collection and analysis of data (Snow)
  68. Analytical
    Comparision of a diseased group and a healthy group (nightingale)
  69. Experimental
    • Controlled experiments (Semmelweis)
    • test drug effectiveness
  70. Case reporting
    Health care workers report specific diseases to local, statem and national officers
  71. Nationally notifiable diseases
    Contagious and or deadly diseases, physicians are required to report occurrence
  72. Center of Disease Control and Prevention CDC
    Collects and anaylzes epidemiological information in the US
  73. Morbidity
    Incidence of a specific notifable disease
  74. Mortality
    Deaths from notifiable diseases
  75. Morbidity rate
    Number of people affected in relation to the total population in a given time period
  76. Mortality rate
    Number of deaths from a disease in relation to the population in a given time
Card Set
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