Systemic Carbonic anhydrase inhibitors (CAIs)
- Sulfonamide derivative used systemically to treat open angle glaucoma.
- Can treat macular edema and other macular degeneration diseases
- Inhibition of carbonic anhydrase (CA) isozymes present in ciliary
- processes of the eye (such as CA II, IV and XII), with the consequent
- reduction of bicarbonate and aqueous humour secretion, and of elevated
- intraocular pressure (IOP).
- Since CA II/IV/XII are present in many other tissues/organs, (CNS,
- erythrocytes, pancreas, gastric mucosa, kidney), systemic CAIs possess
- undesired side effects such as numbness and tingling of extremities,
- somnolence (CNS); metallic taste; depression; fatigue; malaise; weight
- loss; decreased libido; gastrointestinal irritation; metabolic acidosis; renal
- calculi (precipitation of calcium phosphate salts in an alkaline urine) and
- transient myopia. Contraindicated in patients with sulfa allergy.