Chapter 9 Patho

  1. What characterizes cancer cells?
    infiltrative growth mode
  2. Which is not a malignant tumor?
  3. Endocrine hormone secretion is increased in:
    nonencapsulated tumors
  4. Metastasis is :
    the ability to estabilish a secondary neiplam at a new site
  5. Carcinoma in situ is :
    preinvasive and a glandular or epithelial lesion
  6. Known routes of metastais include:
    • continuous extension
    • lympathic spread
    • bloodstream dissemination
  7. Tumor suppressor genes are:
    • normall genes that regulate growth and development
    • genes that produce proteins that inhibit cellular division
  8. Which is not involved in metastasis?
    initial establishment
  9. Oncogenic viruses are:
    capable of transforming a normal cell into a concerous cell
  10. The p53 gene:
    • enabes cells to cope with DNA damage
    • blocks the proliferation of cells that have suffered carcinogenic mutations
    • mutations are the most common genetic lesion in human cancer
    • mutations disable an emergency brake on cell proliferation
  11. Local invasive factors include all except:
    increase cellular adhesions
  12. The sequence of carcinogensis is :
    ionizing radiation, caretaker gene activity, and point mutations
  13. An adenoma is :
    • benign
    • a gladular epithelial neoplasm
  14. Carcinoma:
    arise from epithelial tissure
  15. Sacrcomas:
    arise from connective tissue
  16. How are cancer cells classified:
    • by anaplasia or loss of differentiation
    • by autonomy or independence from normal cellular controls
  17. The three main genetic mechanisms have a role in human carcinogenesis:
    • 1. mutation of the genes resulting in hyperactivity of growth related gene products such as oncogenes
    • 2. mutation of genes resulting in loss or inactivity of gene products that normally would inhibit growth such as tummor suppressor genes
    • 3. mutation of genes resulting in overexpression of products that prevent normal cell death or apotosis thus resulting in allowed continued growth of tumor
  18. Successful Metasitasis includes:
    • survival in circulation
    • attachment and grwoth
    • induction of aniogenesis at a favorable distant site are required.
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Chapter 9 Patho