Science Vocab Ch. 5

  1. the hypothesis that the continents slowly move across Earth's surface
    Continental drift
  2. the name of the single landmass that began to break apart 200 million years ago and gave rise to today's continets
  3. is any trace of an ancient organism that has been preserved in rock
  4. an undersea mountain chain where new ocean floor is produced; a divergent plate boundary under the ocean
    mid-ocean ridges
  5. the process by which molten material adds new oceanic crust to the ocean floor
    sea-floor spreading
  6. a deep valley along the ocean floor beneath which oceanic crust slowly sinks toward the mantle
    deep-ocean trench
  7. the process by which oceanic crust sinks beneath a deep ocean trench and back into the mangle at a convergent plate boundary
  8. a plate boundary where two plates move away from each other
    divergent boundary
  9. a plate boundary where two plates move towards each other
    convergent boundary
  10. a plate boundary where two plates move past each other in opposite directions
    transform boundary
  11. the theory that pieces of Earth's lithosphere are in constant motion, driven by convection currents in the mantle
    plate tectonics
  12. a break in Earth's crust along which rocks move
  13. a deep valley that forms where two plates move apart
    rift valley
  14. a force that acts on rock to change its shape or volume
  15. stress that stretches rock so that it becomes thinner in the middle
  16. a section of the lithosphere that slowly moves over the asthenosphere, carrying piece3s of continental and oceanic crust
  17. stress that squeezes rocks until it folds or breaks; the part of lattitude wave where the particles of the medium are close together
  18. stress that pushes masses of rocks in opposite directions, in a sideways movement
  19. a type of fault whree the hanging wall slides downward; caused by tension in the crust
    normal fault
  20. a type of fault where the hanging wall slides upward, caused by compression in the crust
    reverse fault
  21. a type of fault in which rocks on either side move past each other sideways with little up or down movement
    strike-slip fault
  22. a large landform that has high elevation and a more or less level surface
  23. a weak spot in the crust where magma has come to the surface
  24. the molten mixture of rock forming substances, gases, and water from the mangle
  25. liquid magma that reaches the surface
  26. a major belt of volcanoes that rims the Pacific Ocean
    Ring of Fire
  27. a string of volcanoes that form as the result of subduction of one oceanic plate beneath a second oceanic plate
    island arc
  28. an area where magma from deep within the mangle melts through the crust above it
    hot spot
  29. the pocket beneath a volcano where magma collects
    magma chamber
  30. a long tube through whcih magme moves from the magma chamber to Earth's suface
  31. the opening through which molten rock and gas leave a bolcano
  32. the area covered by lava as it pours out of a volcano's vent
    lava flow
  33. a large round pit caused by the impact of a mineral. A bowl shaped area that forms around a volcano's central opening.
  34. a mineral found in magma that is formed from the elements oxygen and cilicon; it is the primary substance of Earth's curst and mantle
  35. the flow of ash, cinders, bombs, and gases down the side of a volcano during an explosive eruption
    pryoclastic flow
  36. not currently active but able to become active in the future (as with a volcano)
  37. term used to refer to groups of related organisms that has died out and has no living members. Term used to describe a volcano that is no longer active and is unlikely to erupt again.
Card Set
Science Vocab Ch. 5