The Middle Ages and the Protestant Reformation

  1. The Middle Ages
    Occured from 1050-1500s
  2. 1045
    The year that the break between churches of East and West occured over Nicene Creed and filioque
  3. Crusades
    Occured from 1095-1291
  4. 1215
    The year that the Fouth Lateran Council occured.
  5. 1492
    The year that Christopher Columbus “discovers” the New World
  6. Scholasticism
    • Focused on the rational justification and systematization of theological reflection a Certain approach to theology
    • Not necessarily an agreed on set if beliefs or standards
    • Faith seeking understanding
  7. University of Paris
    Founded in 1200
  8. Peter Abelard
    Medieval French scholastic philosopher, theologian and preeminent logician
  9. Albert the Great
    • One of the most universal thinkers to appear during the Middle Ages
    • His superior understanding of a diversity of philosophical texts allowed him to construct one of the most remarkable syntheses in medieval culture
  10. Bonaventure
    • Italian medieval scholastic theologian and philosopher.
    • Declared a Doctor of the Church in the year 1588 by Pope Sixtus V. He is
    • Known as the "Seraphic Doctor"
  11. Hildegard of Bingen
    • Saint Hildegard, and Sibyl of the Rhine
    • A German writer, composer, philosopher, Christian mystic, Benedictine abbess, visionary, and polymath.
    • Elected a magistra by her fellow nuns in 1136
    • Founded the monasteries of Rupertsberg in 1150 and Eibingen in 1165.
  12. Thomas Aquinas
    • ­Wrote the Summa Theologica,
    • ­Focuses on relationship between faith and intellect
  13. Monastic Study Centers
    Religious societies that combined strict religious observance with intellectual and artistic pursuits
  14. Activities in the Monastic Study Centers include:
    • ­Copying and writing books
    • ­Studying architecture, engineering, math, medicine, and philosophy
    • ­Painting frescos and illuminating manuscripts
  15. The Protestant Reformation
    • A Western European movement (1500-1750) that sought to return Christianity to its biblical roots
    • They were troubled by what seemed to be a multitude of superstitious practices (veneration of relics and saints)
  16. Transubstantiation
    The notion that the sacrement of bread and wine, when blessed at the Mass, literally turned into Jesus' flesh and blood.
  17. Council of Trent
    • 1545
    • Called by the Catholic Church
    • To condemn the principles and doctrines of Protestantism and to define the doctrines of the Catholic Church on all disputed points
  18. Characteristics of Protestant Christianity
    • Return to simple Christianity
    • Centrality of Jesus (the only way to God)
    • Guidance in the Bible
    • Importance of faith
    • Direct relationship with God
    • Individual Judgement
  19. Lutheran Reformation
    • Began in Germany
    • Led by Martin Luther
  20. Martin Luther
    • Catholic monk
    • Ninety-Five Theses
    • Diet of Worms condemns Luther as a heretic in 1521
  21. Indulgence
    In exchange for donating money towards the building of St. Peter's Basilica, donors could buy an indulgence to shorten their time after death a person would have to spend in purgatory.
  22. The Protestant Principle
    The ability of each individual to radically question and rethink accepted interpretation
  23. Calvinist Reformation
    • Swiss origins - John Calvin (French but flees to Switzerland)
    • Leads to Reformed Churches (i.e. Presbyterian)
    • Emphasizes liturgy and church life more than doctrine
    • Calvin emphasized the importance of Scripture
  24. Lutheranism
    • Matin Luther's version of the reform emphasized faith and the authority of the Bible
    • Spread throughout central and northern Germany, Scandinavia, and the United States
  25. Calvinism
    • Darker than Lutheranism, for they viewed human nature as being basically sinful and almost irresitibly drawn to evil.
    • Predestination (already knows who going to heaven and hell)
  26. The Church of England (Anglican Church)
    • Created by King Henry VIII
    • Maintained the traditional Church structure
    • Services in Latin
    • The Book of Common Prayer
  27. Sectarianism
    • Sects of Protestantism who have taken literal translations of the Bible
    • The Anabaptist - baptize again (Mennonite and Amish rose from this Sect)
    • The Baptist - baptism in adults only, simplicity in ritual
    • The Quakers - ardent pacifists
    • The Shakers - devotional dance, complete celibacy
  28. Catholic Reformation
    • Good works (accompanies faith)
    • Church authority guides biblical interpretation
    • Importance of Tradition
    • Hierarchy
    • Veneration of Mary and the saints
    • Seven sacraments
  29. Seven Sacrements
    • Baptism
    • Confirmation
    • Eucharist (Lord's Supper, Mass)
    • Matrimony
    • Holy orders (ordination of priests)
    • Reconsiliation (confession)
    • Anointing of the sick (unction)
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The Middle Ages and the Protestant Reformation