Oceanography final

  1. What are the raw ingredients of photosynthesis and what are the end products?
    the chemical reaction in which organic molecules (carbohydrates) are formed from carbon dioxide and water, using radiant energy (sunlight) as an energy source and chlorophyll as a catalyst; oxygen is the biproduct!
  2. endotherm
    warm blooded
  3. autotroph
    an organism that synthesizes biomass from inorganic molecules by using an external energy source like sunlight, plants that photosythesize are autotrophs
  4. heterotroph
    an organism that is incapable of synthesizing its own food and therefore must feed upon organic matter produced by other organisms
  5. trophic level
    an organisms feeding status in an ecosystem; its position in the food chain.
  6. the classification of biology is called?
  7. 5 factors that affect marine life
    light, temperature, dissolved inorganic solids, dissolved gases, hydrostatic pressure, and water movement
  8. 7 ocean zones
    pelagic, neritic, oceanic, benthic, littoral, euphotic, aphotic
  9. pelagic zone
    open water
  10. neritic zone
    near continent, neritic and oceanic
  11. oceanic zone
    deep zone
  12. euphotic zone
    light penetrating zone
  13. aphotic zone
    no light
  14. Compensation depth
    bottom of euphotic zone, when the respiration rate = productivity
  15. Benthic Zone
    the seafloor, the lowest part of the ocean
  16. Littoral zone
    part of the water closer to shore similar to neritic
  17. 2 main organisms living in th epelagic zone
    nektons and plankton
  18. Nekton
    actively swimming organisms contrast to plankton
  19. Plankton
    drifting organisms can be contrasted with nektons
  20. Benthic organisms
    sessile benthic, and mobile benthic
  21. sessile benthic
    organisms anchored to the bottom of the floor
  22. mobile benthic
    organisms that are able to freely move, ex: crabs, flounders
  23. phytoplankton
    they are microscopic plants that obtain their energy from sunlight, phytoplankton carry an important role since they are the base of their food chain.
  24. most common and important phytoplankton?
    diatoms, dinoflagellates, zooxantheale, cyanobacteria
  25. diatoms
    one of the most productive photosynthetic organisms, they are a big contributer to oxygen on earth and they are made up of glass shells, silicon dioxide, when they die they form silicious oozes on the ocean floor.
  26. dinoflagellates
    single celled autotrophs, and few live in other organisms, but most are free in the water. They have whiplike projections called flagella in channels groove, and uses it to move throught he water to achieve the best photosynthetic position as possible. They are the cause of red tide and other harmful algae blooms.
  27. what is red tide?
    a harmful algal bloom caused by dinoflagellates being very numerous and the water turns a rusty red color from the pigments of the algae
  28. what kingdom is seaweed
    protista not plantae
  29. 3 main divisions of seaweed
    red-rhodophyta, brown-phaeophyta, green- chlorophyta.
  30. marine vascular plants
    actual plants that have little vein like tubes that carry nutrients through their bodies, segrasses, mangrove.
  31. how do we measure productivity?
    we use the light and dark bottle technique and measure the amount of oxygen that is being produced.
  32. 4 basic marine animal groups
    zooplankton,primitive invertebrates, advanced invertebrates, vertebrates
  33. zooplankton
    floating drifting organisms, feed on phytoplankton or smaller zooplankton and can range from being microscopic or to several meters (jellyfish), verticle migration system
  34. primitive invertebrates
    live near the bottom but some are free swimming, some suspension feeders; usually have no digestive, excretory and cirvulatory systems; some have tentacles or stinging cells also very big range in size, example: sponges,anenomies,worms
  35. advanced inverebrates
    most numerous of marine animal species, some form of mobility and many exhibit planktonic larval stages, some graze on plant, some are suspension feeders, some are predators, and some are scavengers; they have well-developed digestive and nervous systems; shells, exoskeletons. ex: snails, seacucmbers
  36. vertebrates
    animals that hvave an internal skeleton of calcified bone or cartilage; range in size from a few mm to over 30 mm; largest sub group is fish, then birds, marine mammels, reptiles, generally the largest most mobile and most intelligent animals in the sea; phyla chordata examples hagfish,sharks,frogs,albatross,whales
  37. phyla for zooplankton,primitive inverts, advanced inverts, and vertebrates
    • zooplankton-protozoa;cnidaria;molusxa;arthropda
    • primitive inverts- sponges; sea anemonies,worms
    • advanced inverts- mollusca; arthropoda; echinodermata
    • vertebrates- chordata
  38. Class of the bony fish and characteristics
    • class: osteichthyes.
    • four families.
    • herring-smallest fish the most caught
    • cod- meduim size
    • tuna- the fastest and eats the most, no swim bladders and endothemic
    • halobit- flatfish-flounders
  39. marine mammels share 4 characteristics
    • 1) streamlined body shape
    • 2) internal body heat generation and heat conservation
    • 3) modified respiratory system
    • 4) water regulation mechanisms
  40. cetaceans- two groups
    toothed whales and baleen whales
Card Set
Oceanography final
oceanography final