1. Hyperthermia
  2. Hypothermia
  3. Cell theory states that
    All living things are composed of cells.
  4. Mitochonria are membrane boutnd organelles in the cytoplasm in which:
    Energy rich molecules are broken down; using oxygen
  5. Process which glucose will enter the cell
    Facilitated diffusion
  6. Hydrogen bond is weaker than
    Covalemt bond
  7. Insulin is a
  8. Rough endoplasmic reticulum associted with
    • Insulin (protein cell)
    • In pancreas
  9. Lipids are
    Hydrophobic molecules
  10. Hydrolosis is process in which
    a molecule is broken into two by addition of water
  11. In lipids the term UNSATURATED means
    presence of double bonds vbetween adjacent carbon atoms in a fatty acid.
  12. Each amino acid differs from others in the
    Chemical structure of the R group
  13. A decrease of cholesterol within the cell membrane will
    Increase the fluidity of the cell membrane.
  14. 4 most frequently found elements
    • 1) Carbon
    • 2) Oxygen
    • 3) Hydrogen
    • 4) Nitrogen
  15. If we remove 1 neuron from potassium we will
    Create a potasssium isotope
  16. Chemical bpnd in which electrons are shared by 2 atoms
  17. Low glycemic carbs
    Are sowly absorbed into the blood.
  18. Tertiary Structure
    The association of protein with multiple subunits to function (like Hemoglobin)
  19. Cell Membrane
    • provides support barrier
    • Controls movement in and out of cell
  20. Nucleus
    • Contains DNA,
    • Controlsa activity of cell
  21. Smooth Endoplasmic reticulum
    • Lipid Synthesis including steroid hormone
    • Rich in gonads and archeal gland
    • Drug and poison detox
    • Rich in liver
    • Making fats
  22. Rough Endoplasmic Reticulum
    Make proteins (inulin)
  23. Mitochondrion
    • Sight of cellular respiration
    • Converts food energy into ATP
  24. Chloroplast
    Converts solar energy in to chemical energy
  25. Centriole
    • Made from microtubulesd
    • Important in directing DNA movement
  26. Central vacuole
    • Stores water and food
    • Helps keep plant cell turgid
  27. Lybosome
    • Contains digestive enzymes
    • Digest food and recycle damaged organelles
  28. Cytoskeleton
    • Provides cell shape
    • Provides cellular movement
  29. Number of chromomes in parent cell in
  30. Number of daughter cells in
    MEiosis double Mitosis
  31. Number of chromosomes in each daughter cell
    Mitosis double Meiosis
  32. Mitosis type of cell
  33. Meiosis type of cell
  34. What seperates in Meiosis I
    Homologous Chromosomes
  35. What separates in Meiosis II
    Sister chromatids
  36. Prophase
    Crossing over
  37. Metaohase I
    Random assortment
  38. Two stages of Meiosis that result in genetic diversity
    • Prophase (crossing over)
    • Metaphase (randomn assortment)
  39. What is a Chromatin?
    A mixture of histone proteins and DNA
  40. Each individual chromosome at the beginnig of mitosis is composed of___
    2 sister chromatids
  41. During which phase of interpohase does DNA replication occur?
  42. Check repair or die
  43. During which phase of mitosis does the chromatin begin to condense to form the chromosomes?
  44. In plants the formation of the cell plate occurs during
  45. Interphase consists of
  46. Cells produced by meiosis are called
  47. How do meiosis and mitosis differ from each other?
    • Cells fomed in meiosis are called haploid
    • Mitosis = diploid
  48. Mitosis
  49. Meiosis
  50. What is decreased during the process of meiosis
    # of chromosomes
  51. Genetic make up of an individual is called his her
  52. what sepoarates in anaphase of mitosis?
    Sister chromatids
  53. What happens in Prophase of meiosis I
    Crossing over and exchange of genteic material
  54. What happens in Metaphase II
  55. Genes located close together on the same chromosome are referre to as ____ and generally________
    Linked and generally do not sort independently during meiosis.
  56. The phase of meiosis assiciated with crossing over of homologous chromosomes is
    Prophase I
  57. What is the genome of an organism
    • Complete set of DNA
    • All of our genes
  58. Genes
    Traits inherited by parents
  59. Gene Expression
    Process by which information from a gene is used in synthesis of a functional gene product.
  60. Events of cell Cycle
    • Interphase (GI, S, G2,)
    • Prophase
    • Metaphase
    • Anaphase
    • Telophase
  61. Mitotic Phase
    • Spindles migrate to opposite poles of cell,
    • Pairing
    • Crossing over
    • Spindles form
  62. Metaphase
    Spindle fibers attach to centromeres of chromosomes
  63. Anaphase
    Sister chromatids separate
  64. 3 components that make up a nucleotide monomer
    • Phosphate group
    • Pentose sugar
    • Nitrogenous base

  65. Describe the basid structure of DNA molecule
    Double helix
  66. Rosalind F
    Discovered DNA structure
  67. James Watson & Crick
    • T-A
    • C-G
  68. Basic steps of DNA replication
    • Unzips- Pairs are broken
    • DNA polymerize- adds complimentary base pairs
    • One original .. one newly made
  69. DNA & RNA Differences (3)
    • DNA-
    • Souble standard
    • Deoxyribose,
    • A-T, C-G

    • RNA-
    • Single standard
    • Ribose
    • A-U, C-G
  70. Codon
    Sequence in DNA + RNA that code for an aino acid.
  71. Anticodon
    Complementary 3 base pair (sequence) on a tRNA molecule that has appropriate amino acid attached.
  72. Info to make up protein cointained in ?
  73. Introns
    Non Coding, and are removed
  74. Exons
    • Coding regions
    • Spliced together
  75. Proteome
    All of our proteins
  76. Process of TRANSCRIPTION
    • Initiation- DNA unwinds- separates
    • Elongation- RNA bases are added to DNA bases
    • Termination- RNA detaches from DNA
  77. Genotype to Phenotype
    Info from genes to mRNA
  78. Cellular Differentiation
    They become specialized in structure and functin.
  79. SCNT
    • Self cloning
    • Therapeutic Cloning
  80. IPS (Induced pluripotent stem cells)
    • Reprogram nucleus to have properties of ES cells
    • Potential to become patient specific
    • Generate your own stem cells
  81. REproduvtive Cloning
    Implant cloned embryo into mother
  82. Therapeutic Cloning
    Induce stem cells to forn specialized cells for therapeutic use.
  83. Which cancers are most deadly in US
    • Most: Lung
    • Least: Colorectal
  84. Carcinomas
    • Glands,
    • 90% of all ccancers
  85. Sarcomas
    Connective tissues
  86. Lymphomas
  87. Leukemias
  88. Normal Tissues
    Only divide to replace dying or damaged cells
  89. Dysplacia
    Excessive cell division
  90. Hyperplasia cells
    cell division abnormal/ elevated
  91. Cercenoma in Situ
    • Severe dysplacia
    • Tumor remains in place benign
  92. Telomerase
    • Basically immortalization with G1 stuck at +
    • Tumor suppressor being cut

    Cancer cells cna continue to replicate endlessly.
  93. Apoptasis
    • The loss of cell suicide
    • All new cells (cancer) are accepted
  94. Metastasis
    • Can cer can only grow so much in one area
    • So it spreads to other parts of body

    Road trip

    95% death
  95. Geade
    Appearance of cells in biopsy
  96. Stage
    How far cancer has spread
  97. Carcinogens
    Anything that increases chance of cancer
  98. Mutagon
    • mutate DNA,
    • Uv radiation,
    • Tobbacco
  99. Promoters
    • Hormones
    • Chronic infection
    • Inflamation
    • Obesity
    • Hard alcohol
  100. % of Cancer incidents caused by hereditary factors
  101. 2 reasons that cancer risk dramatically increases with age
    • 1) takes time to develop 6 mutations
    • 2) Exposed to more carcinogens over time.
  102. Alleles
    Variations of a gene
  103. Mendells 1st law
    Principles of segregatioin
  104. saparate of gametes
  105. Mendells 2nd law
    Principle of separate assortment
    Chromosomes separate independantly
  106. Phenotype
    • Observable traits
    • What we see
  107. Organelles
    Separate within a cell
  108. Prophase
    Chromosomes are duplicated
  109. Metaphase
    • Chromosomes separate
    • Move away from one another
  110. Telophase
    Move to opposite ends and nuclei are formed
  111. Interphase
    Resting pohase
  112. Meiosis I : Homologous chromosomes separate
    • Prophase: Crossing over
    • Metaphase Random assortment
    • Anaphase: Homo Chromosomes splt up
    • Telophase: Two haploid cells form
  113. Meiosis II: Sister Chromatids Separate
    • Prophase: Spinle fibers reform and attach duplicated chromosomes.
    • Metaphase II: Chromosomes align in middle of cell
    • Anaphase II: Sisters chromatids separate to opposite ends
    • Telophase: Completion of chromosome migration
    • Result of 4 haploid cells
  114. G1
    Decide to duplicate or not
  115. S Phase
    Every chromosome replicates
  116. G2
    • Check repair or die
    • Cell suicide program
  117. M Mitotic Phase
    DNa distributes evenly in each cell
  118. Mitosis
    Cell divides producing two daughter cells that are genetically ientical to the parent cell.
  119. Energy (2 types)
    • Potential: Stored
    • Kinetic: Energy in motion
  120. What is nestled in between phospholipids
  121. Mitochondria
    • Site of cellular respiration
    • Converts foodto energy
  122. Mother molecule
  123. Unsaturated
    • Less hydrogen,
    • replaced w carbon double bonds
  124. Saturated
    Filled w hydrogens
  125. Tryglicerides
    Glycerol + addition of 3 fatty acids
  126. 3 major typesof bonds
    • Ionic
    • Covalent
    • Hydrogen
  127. Atom
    Made up of + protons
  128. Atomic Mass
    On top
  129. Atomic #
    on bottom
  130. Ion
    Charged atom or molecule
Card Set
Pre Final