chapter 3 synapses

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  1. Specialized junctions between neurons are called:
  2. Sherrington found that repeated stimuli within a brief time have a cumulative effect. He referred to this phenomenon as:
    temporal summation.
  3. Which of the following is TRUE about EPSPs?
    They decay over time and space.
  4. Depolarization is to ________ as hyperpolarization is to ________.
    excitation; inhibition
  5. Which of the following would produce spatial summation?
    Present two or more weak stimuli at the same time.
  6. Temporal summation is to ________, as spatial summation is to ________.
    time; location
  7. Which of the following neurotransmitters is released by active neurons to dilate the blood vessels and increase blood flow?
    nitric oxide
  8. The catecholamines include:
    epinephrine, norepinephrine, dopamine.
  9. What makes nitric oxide unique among neurotransmitters?
    It is a gas.
  10. If you eat a food containing tryptophan, what can you consume with it to increase its entry to the brain?
  11. High concentrations of all neurotransmitters, except for NO, are stored in the:
    presynaptic terminals.
  12. The release of neurotransmitter from the presynaptic terminal is most dependent on the influx of what ion?
  13. The neurotransmitter GABA exerts ________ effects, and its effects are almost always ________.
    ionotropic; inhibitory
  14. Second messengers" carry their messages to:

    areas within the postsynaptic cell.
  15. What is the function of the enzyme acetylcholinesterase?
    It breaks acetylcholine down into components for recycling.
  16. A drug that blocks the effects of a neurotransmitter is a(n) ________; a drug that mimics or increases the effects is a(n) ________.
    antagonist; agonist
  17. The key into a lock analogy best describes:
    a drug's affinity for a receptor.
  18. Opiate drugs bind to receptors in the brain for:
  19. LSD and other hallucinogenic drugs probably exert their effects most directly on what part of the neuron?
    the postsynaptic receptors
  20. A common drug to treat alcoholism that produces illness after consuming alcohol is:
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chapter 3 synapses
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