Pathology Final - Eye, Ear, Vasculitis, Nutrition

  1. Cataracts
    most common cause of blindness in US; clouding of lens; most frequent cause is natural aging process
  2. Glaucoma
    • Progressive atrophy to optic nerve and retinal ganglion cells with consequent loss of peripheral vision initially, central vision later.
    • Primary (idiopathic): Open angle --most common--increasing intraocular pressure due to blocked eye drainage canals; Closed angle---Acute onset; painful, eye canal blocked at entrance; Colored halos; steamy cornea
  3. Diabetic retionopathy
    Microaneurysms, microangiopathy; Blood vessels more permeable leading to hemorrhage and edema recognized on exam as "cotton wool spots"--can ultimately lead to detached retina; promotes the formation of cataracts
  4. Otitis media
    • (can be acute or chronic)
    • Pain or hearing loss; purulence due to bacteria infection
    • Chronic otitis media can cause rupture of tympanic membrane
  5. Cholesteatoma
    epidermal inclusion cyst-common complication of chronic otitis media
  6. Otosclerosis
    • most common cause of conductive hearing loss in middle-aged Americans; autosomal dominant; women 2:1; more common in Caucasians
    • Bone forms on both sides of oval window and eventually replaces entire stapes
  7. Meniere's disease
    Adults 40-60; unknown etiology; increased endolymphatic pressure affecting the cochlea TRIAD: Episodic vertigo lasting 1 to several hours, Sensineural hearing loss for low frequency sound, Tinnitis (ringing in the ears)
  8. Conductive hearing loss
    Caused by external or middle ear lesions
  9. Sensory hearing loss
    • Results from cochlear abnormalities
    • Noise trauma; ototoxic drugs
  10. Neural hearing loss
    Results from lesions (typically neuromas or multiple sclerosis) of cranial nerve VIII or of CNS
  11. Giant cell (temporal) arteritis
    • Granulomatous inflammation; skip lesions involving temporal artery; older patients; can cause blindness if untreated and involving ophthalmic arteries also
    • Sometimes mistaken for TMD symptoms—pain, headaches
    • Large vessel involvement
  12. Takayasu arteritis
    • patients under 50; involves the aorta; pulseless disease (weakening of pulse in upper extremities; ocular disturbances, intermittent claudication; variable course
    • Large vessel involvement
  13. Polyarteritis nodosum
    • Necrotizing inflammation typically involving renal arteries
    • Young adults—fever, weight loss, hypertension
    • Medium sized vessels (arteries of organs)
  14. Kawasaki disease
    • Medium sized vessels (arteries of organs)
    • Involves the coronary arteries often; coronary artery aneurysms
    • Children < 4; fever; oral erythema
    • Skin rash
    • Associated with mucocutaneous lymph node syndrome (cervical nodes enlarged)
  15. Wegener’ s granulomatosis
    • Small vessels (arterioles, venules, capillaries)
    • unknown etiology; sinusitis and nosebleeds
    • granulomatous lesions of nose, sinuses, lungs, kidney
    • cANCA on serologic testing
    • Friable "strawberry gingivitis"
  16. Henoch Schonlein purpura
    • Small vessels (arterioles, venules, capillaries)
    • Hematuria, IgA deposits in glomeruli,
    • Skin rash; abdominal pain, joint pain
  17. Buerger disease (thromboangitis obliterans)
    • Small vessels (arterioles, venules, capillaries)
    • Smokers; males, but increasing among female smokers
    • Under age 35
    • Thrombosing painful inflammation of one or more of extremities--can extend to adjacent nerves
    • Vascular insufficiency with infarction--gangrene
  18. Thrombophlebitis
    deep vein (of typically the leg) inflammation and thrombosis
  19. Glomus tumor
    benign but very painful tumor of arteriovenous anastomosis; Most common on digits, under fingernail; Surgery is curative
  20. B1 (thiamine) vitamin deficiency
    Beriberi; Wernicke-Korsakoff
  21. B2 (riboflavin) vitamin deficiency
    Glossitis, dermatitis
  22. B3 (Niacin) vitamin deficiency
  23. B6 (pyridoxine) vitamine deficiency
    • Glossitis, anemia, neurologic problems
    • Convulsions in infants
  24. B12 (cobalamin) vitamin deficiency
    Megaloblastic anemia; neurologic problems
  25. Folic acid deficiency
    Megaloblastic anemia; no neurologic
  26. Vitamin C (abscorbic acid) deficiency
    Scurvy; poor wound healing
  27. Vitamin A deficiency
    Night blindness
  28. Vitamin D (calciferol) deficiency
    • Osteomalacia-adults
    • rickets-kids
  29. Vitamin E deficiency
    Neurologic problems possible
  30. Vitamin K deficiency
    Bleeding problems
Card Set
Pathology Final - Eye, Ear, Vasculitis, Nutrition
Pathology Final