Pathology Final - Repro, Breast

  1. Cryptorchidism
    Undescended testes--leads to higher rate of malignancy and to sterility
  2. Orchitis
    Inflammation of the testes--complications include infertility
  3. Urethritis forms and organisms responsible?
    • Purulent--Neisseria gonorrhea
    • Non-purulant--Chlamydia (most common sexually transmitted disease)
  4. Syphilis
    • Primary: Chancre at site of inoculation
    • Secondary: Macular-papular rash, Condyloma lata , Mucous patch
    • Tertiary: Gumma (granulomatous destructive lesion),Tabes dorsalis, Dissecting aortic aneurysms, Perivasculitis, Dementia, Not curable at this stage
  5. Seminoma
    • Most common testicular neoplasm
    • Good prognosis
  6. NSGCTS (nonseminomatous germ cell tumors)
    • Embryonal cell--aggressive
    • Yolk sac--age 3
    • Choriocarcinoma--most highly malignant
    • Teratoma--can be malignant
  7. Benign prostate hyperplasia
    • Urinary obstruction
    • Increased urinary frequency
    • Hesitancy
    • Increased infections
    • NO RELATIONSHIP TO PROSTATE CANCER--but the two can co-exist
  8. Prostate Carcinoma
    • MOST common cancer in men
    • No definitive risk factors
    • Frequently metastasizes to bone
  9. Pelvic inflammatory disease
    • Predisposing factors: Early sexual activity, Multiple partners, Recurrent STDs, use of IUDs
    • Complications: Pain Infertility, Vaginal discharge, Pelvic abscesses, Ectopic pregnancies
  10. Endometrial Carcinoma
    • Most common malignancy of female genital system
    • Adenocarcinoma
    • More common in women who are obese, hyperestrogenism, nulliparous (no children), early menarche or late menopause
  11. Leiomyoma
    • Benign; most common uterine tumor, often multiple
    • Estrogen sensitive--will increase when estrogen high
  12. Endometriosis
    • No relationship to cancer
    • Manifest by menstrual severe pain
    • Complications: pain, infertility, adhesions
  13. Kruckenburg tumors
    Gastric carcinoma metastatic to both ovaries (signet ring cells)
  14. Preeclampsia
    • hypertension, albuminemia, edema
    • Toxemia of pregnancy
  15. Eclampsia
    • Hypertension, albuminemia, edema
    • Plus convulsions, seizures, DIC
  16. Postpartum anterior pituitary necrosis
    • Consequence of severe hypotension, most often from blood loss
    • (Sheehan syndrome)
  17. Hydatiform mole---grapelike placental villi in loose stroma
    • Characterized by a significant increase in hCG, uterine size, and vaginal bleeding
    • Usually occurs in early months of pregnancy
    • Complete mole: 46XX paternal derivation only—no embryo is present
    • Partial mole: embryo is present but triploidy—thought to be die to fertilization of the egg by two or more sperm
  18. Fibrocystic disease
    • Most common disorder of the breast
    • Characterized by lumpy breasts and mid-cycle tenderness
    • Characterized by fibrosis, blue domed cysts, and epithelial changes such as apocrine metasplasia and sclerosing adenosis
    • If epithelial changes include either atypical ductal hyperplasia or papillomatosis, it is considered to be pre-malignant and more likely to proceed to cancer.
  19. Fibroadenoma
    • Most common benign tumor
    • Most common breast tumor in women under 25
    • Firm rubbery painless mass (lumpy breasts/midcycle tenderness)
    • Does NOT undergo malignant change
  20. Intraductal papilloma
    Clinically manifest by serous or bloody discharge
  21. Breast Cancer
    • Most common cancer in women
    • Most frequently occurs in upper outer quadrant
    • Most common type is infiltrating ductal (other names for this tumor are invasive ductal or scirrhous carcinoma)
    • Risk factors for breast cancer: Increasing age, Familial history, Early menarche/late menopause Obesity, Nulliparous (no children), First pregnancy after age 30, Proliferative fibrocystic breast disease with papillomatosis and/or atypical ductal epithelial hyperplasia, High fat diet, Caucasian, Jewish descent, Inherited mutations in p53, BRCA-1, and BRCA-2 tumor suppressor genes associated with increased risk
    • Can demonstrate estrogen and progesterone receptors in some tumors (associated with a better prognosis)
  22. Paget's disease of the breast
    • Exzematous lesion of the nipple with underlying invasive ductal carcinoma usually
    • Large cells surrounded by a clear halo
Card Set
Pathology Final - Repro, Breast
Pathology Final