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The entire Hebrew Bible consisting of Torah (law), Nebi'im (prophets) and Ketrvim (sacred writings). ACRONYM
The Documentary Hypothesis (J, E, D, P)
Theory (1984) that the Pentateuch was not written by Moses [one person] but is a compilation from many sources compiled over time.
A worldview that gave rise to a diverse body of literature. Characteristic elements of this literature include a revelation of heavenly secrets to a privileged intermediary and the periodization of history. In these texts the eschatological perspective of the text reinforces the expectation that the era of the author will reach its end very soon.
Doctrine concerning the end of the age.
- Hellenistic period
- Celebrates victory of Maccabean Jews over their oppressors in the mid-century BCE and purification and rededication (Hanukkah) of the temple after it had been profaned.
- 8 Day cycle
- Most popular sect of Judaism. Middle Class.
- Interpretted the scriptural text broadly and tried to establish principles and procedures for scriptual interpretation
- Revered rules of Purity and thithing
- Special groups called "havuroth"-formed and were even more strict about rules
- upper, aristocratic Judean society
- embraced Hellenization
- preistly establishment
- the temple was the center of their power and they read the laws literally
- widely believed to be the authors of the Dead Sea Scrolls
- group of rigorously obserant priests under leadership of a man they called "Teacher of Righteousness"
- When a candidate they disapproved of became this leader, they left Jerusalem and retired to the desert
the oldest complete manuscript of the Hebrew Bible in Hebrew, using the masoretic text and Tiberian vocalization.
Dead Sea Scrolls
a collection of manuscripts from the Maccabean and early Roman period. widely believed to be written by the Judean Essenes
In 800, in Constantinople, there became two Christian worlds. one of which supported Rome and the Pope and the other of which didnt
reflects the emergence of the explicit doctrine of the Trinity: that God has 3 manifistations: Father, Son, Holy Spirit
Council of Nicea
Called by Constantine in 325 to unify the Church and promote stability in the empire
- Augustinian monk and thological scholar
- objected to the Churches proace of selling indulfences: releases from time in purgatory
- Proposed a list of 95 propositions which criticized various church practices
- Wanted to reform the understanding of the nature of sin and redemption
- did not approve of Penance
- There are two components: Inner Jihad is the struggle to make oneself more islamic and Outer Jihad is the struggle to make ones society more Islamic
Material in the Talmud of legal nature