micro chap 20

  1. -inflammation of the endocardium
    -usually refers to an infection of the valves of the heart
    -acute and subacute, with similar symptoms (in subacute the symptoms develop more slowly and are less pronounced)
    -fever, anemia, abnormal heartbeat
    -sometimes symptoms similar to heart attack
    -abdominal or side pain may be reported
    -petechiae over the upper half of the body and under the fingernails may be present
    -in subacute cases, may have enlarged spleen
  2. -occurs when organisms are actively multiplying in the blood
    -many different bacteria and a few fungi can cause this condition
    -fever-prominent symptom
    -patient appears very ill, may have an altered mental state, shaking chills, and GI symptoms
    -often exhibits increased breathing rate and respiratory alkalosis
    -low BP
  3. -three possible manifestations
  4. -respiratory plague
    pneumonic plague
  5. -bacterium injected through a flea bite
    -enters the lymph and is filtered by a lymph node
    -infection causes inflammation and necrosis of the node
    -results in a swollen lesion called a bubo, usually in the groin or axilla
    -incubation period: 2-8 days, ending with the onset of fever, chillls, headache, nausea, weakness, and tenderness of the bubo
    bubonic plague
  6. -when the case progresses to massive bacterial growth in the blood
    septicemic plague
  7. -sometimes called rabbit fever because it has been associated with outbreaks of disease in wild rabbits
    -pathogen of concern on the list of bioterrism agents
    -tick bites: most frequent arthropod vector
    -incubation period of a few days to 3 weeks
    -symptoms: headache, backache, fever, chills, malaise, and weakness
    -further symptoms tied to the portal of entry: ulcerative skin lesions, swollen lymph glands, conjunctival inflammation, sore throat, intestinal disruption, pulmonary involvement
  8. -nonfatal
    -evolves into a slowly progressive syndrome that mimics neuromuscular and rheumatoid conditions
    -early symptoms: rash at the site of a tick bite
    -other early symptoms: fever, headache, stiff neck, dizziness
    -second stage: cardiac and neurological symptoms develop
    lyme disease
  9. -majority caused by Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)
    -most of the remainder caused by cytomegalovirus (CMV)
    -sore throat, high fever, and cervical lymphagenopathy
    -long incubation period-30-50 days
    -also may exhibit a gray-white exudate in the throat, skin rash, and enlarged spleen and liver
    -sudden leukocytosis
    infectious mononucleosis
  10. -caused by viruses in one of four families:
    hemorrhagic fever diseases
  11. -capillary fragility
    -disrupts the blood-clotting system
    -begins with fever, headache, and muscle pain
    -sometimes progresses to oral hemorrhage, nosebleed, vomiting, jaundice, and liver and kidney damage
    -spread by misquitos
    yellow fever
  12. -usually mild
    -sometimes it can progress to dengue hemorrhagic shock syndrome
    -causes severe pain in muscles and joints
    dengue fever
  13. -related viruses, cause similar symptoms
    -extreme manifestations of hemorrhagic events with extensive capillary fragility and disruption of clotting
    -patients bleed from their orifices, mucous membranes, and experience massive internal and external hemorrhage
    -often manifest a rash on the trunk in early stages
    ebola and marburg
  14. -most cases are asymptomatic
    -in 20% of the cases a severe hemorrhagic syndrome develops
    -chest pain, hemorrhaging, sore throat, back pain, vomiting, diarrhea, and sometimes encephalitis
    -patients who recover often suffer from deafness
    lassa fever
  15. nonhemorrhagic fever disease
    -on the CDC list of possible bioterrism agents
    -bacteria is carried into the bloodstream by phagocytic cells, creating focal lesions in the liver, spleen, bone marrow, and kidney
    -fluctuating pattern of fever accompanied by chills, profuse sweating, headache, muscle pain and weakness, and weight loss
  16. -abrupt onset of fever, chills, head and muscle ache, and occassionally a rash
    -sometimes complicated by pneumonitis, hepatitis, and endocarditis
    Q fever
  17. -symptoms start after 1-2 weeks
    -cluster of small papules at the site of innoculation
    -in a few weeks, lymph nodes swell and can become pus-filled
    -only about 1/3 of patients experience high fever
    cat-scratch disease
  18. -highly variable symptoms
    -5-6 day fever
    -leg pains, especially in the tibial region
    -headache, chills, and muscle aches
    -macular rash can occur
    -endocarditis can develop
    trench fever
  19. 2-4 days incubation
    -first symptoms: sustained fever, chills, headache, and muscular pain
    -distinctive spotted rash within 2-4 days after the prodromal phase
    -in most severe untreated cases, enlarged lesions merge and become necrotic
    -other manifestations: cardiovascular disruptions; conditions of restlessness, delirium, convulsions, tremor, and coma
    Rocky Mountatin Spotted Fever (RMSF)
  20. -the world's dominant protozoan disease
    -10-16 day incubation period
    -first symptoms: malaise, fatigue, vague aches, and nausea with or without diarrhea
    -next symptoms: bouts of chills, fever, and sweating
    -symptoms occur at 48-72 hour intervals
    -the interval, length, and regularity of symptoms reflect the type
  21. -can exhibit its primary symptoms in various locations of the body
    *GI tract
    -cutaneous and pulmonary being the most common
  22. -retrovirus
    -hybrid virus: genetic sequences from two separate monkey SIVs
    -spectrum of clinical disease associated with the infection
    -symptoms directly tied to two things: the level of virus in the blood and the level of T cells in the blood
    -initial infection: vague, mononucleosis-like symptoms that soon disappear (initial high levels of virus)
    *within days, about 50% of the T helper cells with memory for the virus are destroyed
    -period of asymptomatic infection that varies in length from 2-15 years
    *during this period the number of T cells in the blood is steadily decreasing
    HIV infection
  23. -the disease
    -symptoms ensue after the T cels reach low enough levels
    -initial symptoms: fatigue, diarrhea, weight loss, and neurological changes
    -progressive symptoms: opportunistic infections or neoplasms, severe immune deregulation, hormone imbalances, metabolic disturbances, pronounced wasting of body mass, protracted fever, fatigue sort throat, and night sweat, lesions in the brain, meninges, spinal column, and peripheral nerves
  24. -general name for at least four different malignant diseases of the WBC forming elements originating in the bone marrow
    -some acute, other chronic
    -many causes-two of which are thought to be viral
    *Adult T-cell by HTLV-I
    *Hairy-cell by HTLV-II
    -signs and symptoms include easy bruising or bleeding, paleness, fatigue, and recurring minor infections
Card Set
micro chap 20
infectious diseases affecting the cardiovascular and lymphatic systems