what is the fasting plasma glucose (FPG) test?
what are the fasting blood glucose levels for pre-diabetic and diabetic?
- measure of the blood glucose level after fasting for at least 8 hours
- 100-125 mg/dL for pre-diabetic
- above 126 mg/dL on two tests for diabetes mellitus
what is the oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) testing for?
- the individual's ability to clear blood glucose (dependent on their ability to absorb and metabolize glucose)
- high carbohydrate diet for 3 days prior to the test
why are patients on a high carbohydrate diet before an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT)?
to make sure glycolytic enzymes (glucokinase, PFK-1, and pyruvate kinase) are adequate
what is the oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) usually used to test for?
gestational diabetes mellitus
what blood glucose levels indicate diabetes mellitus in an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT)?
plasma glucose level greater than 200 mg/dL at two time points; one in the first two hours and one two hours after ingestion of glucose
what test is usually used to determine type 2 diabetes mellitus?
fasting plasma glucose (FPG)
when is it often first revealed that a patient has type 1 diabetes mellitus?
when they first suffer from ketoacidosis, or polyuria polydipsia and polyphagia, confirmed with a FPG test
what is HbA1c testing for?
what levels indicate normal HbA1c?
high risk of diabetes mellitus?
- glycated hemoglobin A
- high risk-greater than or equal to 6% but less than 6.5%
- diabetes mellitus-greater than or equal to 6.5%, confirmed by another HbA1c test or FPG test
what is type 1 diabetes mellitus?
autoimmune destruction of the pancreatic beta-cells, leading to a lack of insulin production
what are three metabolic changes commonly seen in uncontrolled type 1 diabetes?
hyerglycemia, ketoacidosis, hypertriglyceridemia
which two factors characterize type 2 diabetes mellitus?
- insulin resistance
- beta-cell dysfunction
what are the two hypothesized theories for the relationship of obesity and a predisposition to type 2 diabetes?
- lipotoxicity or lipid overload hypothesis
- inflammation hypothesis