1. Reality Therapy
    • This approach focuses on the here-and-now of the client and how to create a better future, instead of concentrating on the past.
    • It emphasizes making decisions, and taking action and control of one's life
    • Typically clients seek to discover what they want and whether what they are currently doing is actually bringing them near to, or further away from, that goal
    • Love and be loved
  2. Process
    • Involvement
    • -Establishing a relationship with the client is believed to be the most importatn factor in all types of therapy, here as well.
    • Current behavior and evaluating behavior
    • -The therapist must focus the client on current behavior rather than past experiences.
    • Planning Possible behavior
    • -Plan some behavior that is likely to work
    • -The plan comes from the client and is designed to have some success at the beginning
    • Look at what can be done instead of past failure or idealized behaviors.
    • Commitment to the plan
    • -The client must make a commitment to carry out the plan
    • No excuses, no punishments, never give up
    • -If there is no punishment, then there is no reason to accept excuses
    • -Either carry out the plan or come up with a more feasible plan
  3. Control Theory
    • Reality Therapy is based on Control Theory
    • -System of brain functioning
    • -The human brain functions like a thermostat that seeks to regulate its own behavior
    • -These needs are innate and not learned
    • -Effective satisfaction of these needs results in a sense of control
  4. Five Basic, Genetically Endowed Needs
    • Survival-- food, clothign, nourishment, shelter, personal safety
    • Belonging- Connecting, love with groups as well as family and loved ones
    • Power-- learning, achieving, feeling worthwhile
    • Freedom-- independence, autonomy, one's own space
    • Fun-- pleasure and enjoyment
  5. Theory of Personality
    • The personality develops as an attempt to fulfill the five innate drives:
    • -Belonging
    • -Power
    • -Fun/enjoyment
    • -Freedom
    • -Physical survival
    • We generate behaviors and through experimentation we find them to be either need satisfying or need threatening
  6. Characteristic of Reality Therapy
    • The only person you can control is yourself
    • Choice and discovery
    • -Humans choose behavior
    • -These behaviors are either effective or ineffective
    • -Collections of "wants" is the world the person would like to live in, or "quality world."
    • Identity
    • -As the behaviors are chosen, the person either succeeds (success identity) or fails (failure identity).
    • Reject Transference
    • -The therapist is not anyone but themselves
    • -Relationship with client is important
    • Keep therapy in the present
    • -Whatever mistakes made in the past are not pertinent now... we can only satisfy needs in the present
    • Avoid focusing on the symptoms
    • -clients think that if they could be symptom free they would find happiness
    • -Symptoms can be viewed as the body's way of warning them that the behavior they are choosing is not meeting their needs
    • Challenge traditional views of mental illness
  7. Failure Identity
    • Stage 1- Giving up- unable to fulfill needs effectively
    • Stage 2- Choosing a negative symptom
    • -Although ineffective, the symptom is the best effort at the moment to do what... fulfill a need
    • -WDEP system
    • Stage 3- Negative addiction
    • -Even more ineffective but have the immediate satisfaction of need fulfillment
  8. Success Identity
    • Stage 1- "I want to change, and I want to grow." The desire to fulfill without infringing on others
    • Stage 2- Positive symptoms
    • -Altruistic actions, effective thinking, positive feelings, and effective behaviors
    • Stage 3- Positive addictions
    • -Meditation and noncompetitive exercise
  9. Theory of Personality
    Endless discussion of diagnosis, past history, and external uncontrollable events is not effective in reaching quality living.
  10. Psychotherapy
    • Purposeful behavior- to fulfill needs
    • Behavior as a choice
    • Emphasis on the present
    • -"We do not need to find the nail that caused the tired to lose its air."
    • -What is needed?....
    • Role of the therapist
    • -Creates an environment that is "firm, friendly, and conducive to change."
  11. W- "What do you want."
    • Help the client to formulate, clarify, and prioritize the elements of the "quality world."
    • Help the client to perceive inner control and realize that he or she can increase it by getting the sense that he or she is in some way in control.
  12. D- "What are you doing and waht is your overall direction."
    • Where are the current choice taking you?
    • Where would you like to be in a month?
  13. E-Self-evaluation- this is the cornerstone of the therapy
    • Forms can include:
    • -Evaluation of wants as realistic
    • -Evaluation of wants as genuinely beneficial
    • -Evaluation of behavioral direction
    • -Evaluation of specific actions
    • -Evaluation of perception
    • -Evaluation of plan of action "If you follow through, then..."
    • Professional sefl-evaluation
  14. P-Plans
    • Many find it difficult at first
    • Look for possiblities, minimize focus on failure and maximize attention to "What can be done?"
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