1. Force
    An influence applied by one object to another, which results in an acceleration or deceleration of the second object
  2. Length-tension relationship
    The length at which a muscle can produce the greatest force
  3. Force-Couple
    • Muscle groups moving together to produce movement around a joint
    • (ie) Internal and external obliques create trunk rotation
  4. Rotary Motion
    Movement of bones around a joint
  5. Torque
    A force that produces rotation
  6. Motor Behavior
    The process of the body responding to internal and external stimuli
  7. Motor Control
    The study of posture and movements and the involved structures and mchanisms that the central nervous system uses to assimilate and integrate sensory information with previous experiences
  8. Synergies
    Groups of muscles that are recruited by the central nervous sytem to provide movement
  9. Proprioception
    The cumulative sensory input to the CNS from all machanoreceptors that sense position and limb movements
  10. Sensorimotor Integration
    The cooperation of hte nervous and muscle system in gathering information, interpreting, and executing movement
  11. Common Muscle Synergies of Squat and Shoulder
    • Squat=Quadriceps, hamstrings, and gluteus maximus
    • Shoulder Press-Deltoid, rotator cuff, and traps
  12. Motor Learning
    Repeated practice of motor control processes, which lead to a change in the ability to produce complex movements
  13. Feedback
    The use of sensory inforamtion and sensorimotor integration to help the kinetic chain in motor learning
  14. Internal Feedback
    The process whereby the sensory information is used by the body to reactively monitor movement and the environment
  15. External Feedback
    Information provided by some exernal source, such as health and fitness professional, videotape, mirror, or heart rate monitor to supplement the internal environment
  16. Training zone 1
    • Maximum heart rate x 0.65 or 0.75
    • Builds aerobic base and aids in recovery
  17. Zone Two
    • MHR x 0.8 or 0.85
    • Increases endurance and trains the anaerobic threshold
  18. Zone 3
    • MHR x 0.86 and 0.9
    • Builds high end work capacity
  19. 3 Methods of Body Fat Measurements
    Skin-fold calipers, bioelectrical impedance, underwater weighing
  20. Skin Fold Caliper Testing Sites
    • Biceps, Triceps, Subscapular, and Iliac Crest
    • Measure on right side of body then add them together then refer to Durnin-Womersley Body Fat Percentage Calculation
  21. Waist to hip ratio above 0.80 for women and 0.95 for men puts them at risk for many diseases.
    BMI > 25 is dangerous
  22. Three Minute Step Test
    • Used to estimate a cardiovascular starting point.
    • 1. Determine clients maximum HR then multiply x the figures to get each zone (ie 0.65)
    • 2. Have client do 24 steps per minute on 18 inch step then rest one minute, then take pulse 30 sec

    Duration of exercise (sec) x 100/Recovery pulse x 5.6 = Cardiovascular efficiency
  23. Cardiovascular Efficiency Scores
    • 28-38 Poor, Zone 1
    • 39-28 Fair, Zone 1
    • 49-59 Average, Zone 2
    • 60-70 Good, Zone 2
    • 71-100 Very good, Zone three
  24. Rockport Walk Test
    Determine Max HR, then multiply to get the HR ranges for each zone. Then record clients weight, have them walk 1 mile as fast as they can control on treadmill. Record time. Immediately record HR at 1 mile mark. Then determine their Vo2 score and categorize them using the chart.
  25. Posture
    The allignment and function of all components of the kinetic chain at any given moment
  26. Structural Efficiency
    Alignment of themusculoskeletal system, which allows our center of gravity to be maintained over a base of support
  27. Functional Efficiency
    Ability of the neuromuscluar system to monitor and manipulate movement during functional tasks using at the least amount of stress on kinetic chain
  28. Postural Equilibrium
    Maintaining a state of balance in the alignment of hte kinetic chain
  29. Neuromuscular efficiency
    Ability of the nervous system to communicate effectively with the muscular system
  30. Functional Strength
    The ability of the neuromuscular system to contract eccentrically, isometrically, and concentrically in all three planes of motion
  31. Postural Distortion Patterns
    Predictable occurences of muscle imbalances caused by altered movement patterns
    Designed to assess dynamic flexibility on both sides of hte body as well as integrated total body strength. Arms straight OH, then squat til height of chair. Repeat five times in each position (anterior and lateral)
  33. Anterior View OH Squat:
    Feet Turn out- Overactive and underactive muscles
    • Overactive-Soleus, Lat. Gastrocnemius, Biceps femoris (short head)
    • Underactive-Med. Gastrocnemius, Med hamstring, Gracialis, Sartorius, Popliteus
  34. Anterior View OH Squat: Knees Move Inward
    • Overactive-Adductor complex, Biceps femoris, TFL, Vastus lateralis
    • Underactive-Gluteus Medius/Max. Vastus medialis oblique
  35. Lateral View: LPHC Excessive Forward Lean
    • Overactive: Soleus, Lat gastrocnemis, Hip flexor, abdominal complex
    • Underactive: Anterior tibilalis, Gluteus Maximus, Erector Spinae
  36. Lateral View: Low back arches
    • Overactive: Hip Flexor/ erector spinae
    • Underactive: Gluteus medius, hamstrings, intrinsic core stabilizers
  37. Lateral View: Arms Fall Forward
    • Overactive: Latissimus Dorsi, Teres Major, Pectoralis Major/minor
    • Underactive: mid/lower trapezius, rhomboids, rotator cuff
  38. Pushing Assessment: Checkpoint: LPHC
    Low Back Arches
    • Overactive-Hi flexors, erector spinae
    • Underactive-Intrinsic Core Stabilizers
  39. Pushing Assessment: Checkpoint shoulder complex
    Shoulder Elevation
    • Overactive: Upper trapezius, Sternocleidomastoid, levator scapulae
    • Underactive: Mid and lower trapz
  40. Pushing Assessment: Checkpoint head
    Head Protrudes Forward
    • Overactive-Upper trapezius, sternocleidomastroid, levator scapulae
    • Underactive-Deep Cervical flexors
  41. Pulling Assessment: Checkpoint LPHC, Low back arches
    • Overactive: Hip Flexors, Erector spinae
    • Underactive:Intrinsic core stabalizers
  42. Pulling Assessment: Shoulder Complex
    Shoulder Elevation
    • Overactive Muscles: Upper trapezius, sternocleidomastoid, levator scapulae
    • Underactive: Mid and lower trapezius
  43. Pulling Assessment, Head protrudes forward
    • Overactive: Upper trapz, sternocleidomastoid, levator scap
    • Underactive: Deep cervical flexors
  44. Overhead Squat: Assesses dynamic flexibility and integrated total body strength
    Single Leg Squat: Assess ankle proprioception, core strength, and hip joint stability
    Pushing and Pulling: Assess upper extremity neuromuscluar efficiency
  45. Davies Test-Assesses upper extremity agility adn stabilization, not good for ppl with shoulder problems
    Two pieces of tape on the floor 36 inches apart, push up position have then move hands to touch one another alternating.
  46. Shark Skill Test-Assess lower extremity agility and neuromuscular control. Progression from single leg squat
    Stand on one leg in grid, hop in each of eight squares back to center each time, in order. See when their nonhopping leg touches ground, etc
  47. Upper Extremity Strength Assessment: Bench Press
    Warm up with light resistance, 8-10 reps, take one minute rest, add 10-20 lb (5-10%) and perform 3 to 5 reps, rest 2 minutes, then add again, press, rest repeat until fails at 3-5 reps
  48. Lower Extremity Strength Assessment: Squat-Designed to estimate the one rep squat maximum for training intensity purposes
    Warm up with light resistance, take a 1 min rest, add 30 to 40 lb (10-20%) do 3-5 reps, rest two min, repeat til can't do 3 to 5 reps
  49. Flexibility
    The normal extensibility of all soft tissues that allow the full range of motion of a joint
  50. Extensibility
    The capability to be elongated or stretched
  51. Dynamic Range of motion
    the combination of flexibility and the nervous system's ability to control this range of motion efficiently
  52. Neuromuscular Efficiency
    The ability of hte neuromuscular system to allow agonists, antagonists, and stabilizers to work synergistically to produce, reduce, and dynamically stabilize hte entire kinetic chain in all three planes of motion
  53. Dynamic Functional Flexibility
    Multiplanar soft tissue extensibilty with optimal neuromuscular efficiency throughout the full range of motion
  54. Postural Distortion Patterns
    Predictable patterns of muscle imbalances
  55. Relative Flexibility
    The tendency of teh body to seek the path of least resistance during functional movement patterns
  56. Muscle Imbalances
    Alternation of muscle length surrounding a joint
  57. Altered reciprocal inhibition
    • The concept of muscle inhibition, caused by a tight agonist, which inihibits its functional antagonist )
    • ie-tight hip flexors (psoas) decreases neural drive of fluteus maximus
  58. Synergistic Dominance
    The neuromuscular phenomenon that occurs when inappropriate muscles take over the function of a weak or inhibited prime mover
  59. Arthrokinematics
    The motions of joints in the body
  60. Arthrokinetic Dysfunction
    Altered forces at the joint that result in abnormal muscular activity and impaired neuromuscular communication at the joint
  61. Autogenic Inhibition
    Neural impulses that sense tension is greater than the impulses that cause muscle to contract, providing an inhibitory effect to the muscles. Seen in stretching when you hold for 20 to 30 sec, autogenic inhibition occurs
  62. Pattern Overload
    Consistently repeating hte same pattern of motion which may place abnormal stresses on the body
  63. Davis's law
    States that soft tissue models along the lines of stress
  64. Corrective Flexibility
    Designed to improve muscle imbalances and altered joint motion, uses autogenic inihbition
  65. Active Flexibility
    Designed to improve the extensibility of soft tissue and increase neuromuscular efficiency by using reciprocal inhibition (Active Flexibility)
  66. Functional Flexibility
    power level phase of training
  67. Self Myofascial release
    Apply gentle force to an adhesion for 20 to 30 sec which stimulates golgi tendon organ and creates autogenic inhibition (relaxes muscle)
  68. Static Stretching
    The process of passively taking a muscle to the point of tension and holding the stretch for a minimum of 20 sec. before and after activity
  69. Active Isolated Stretching
    Uses agonists and synergists to dynamicallymove the joint into a range of motion. Held for 1 to 2 seconds and 5 to 10 reps. Ex: Active supine biceps femoris stretch. Ususally a warm up
  70. Dynamic Stretching
    Active extension of a musle, using force production and momentum to move the joint through the full available range of motion. Ex: prisoner squats, one set of ten reps 3 to 10 exercises
Card Set
Muscle and Assessment part 1