1. Body preservation techniques in 18th century deteriorated to
    "saw-dust and tar" level
  2. One customary act of preserving the dead from the European continent was to let nobility and persons of high rank lay in state for
    one week
  3. The desire to be buried "at home" led to
    transportation of body
  4. With respect to preservation of the dead in the 19th century, the outstanding phenomenon appears to be the rapid
    rise, spread and acceptance of a felt need for the body to be preserved as necessary preliminary to proper interment
  5. The impact of growing cities gives rise to the need for preservation of the dead along lines totally different from those reflected in the desire to have the body lie in state. This need appeared for whom?
    poor and people far from home
  6. The most popular method of preserving bodies after death in this period was the application of
    cooling with ice
  7. Describe a corpse cooler
    cooling board, concave, metal, ice-filled box, equipted with lid, spigot and handles
  8. Sometime after the cooling operation had ceased, what were embalming tables still called?
    "cooling boards"
  9. What did Robert Frederick and C.A. Trump invent?
    "corpse cooler" or "refrigeratior for corpses"
  10. Describe the virtue the 19th century funeral directors placed in "air-tight" receptacles
    basic; preserved body by keeping it enclosed in "air-tight" case; needed something more
  11. When did society demand chemical embalming and better methods to deter body decomposition?
  12. What did Dr. Richard Harlan do?
    traveled to Europe to study, translated Jean Gannal's "History of Embalming"; brought back idea of arterial embalming with chemicals
  13. At the outbreak of the Civil War, chemical embalming by injection was first performed by whom?
    Dr. Richard Harlan; physicians, anatomists, chemists
  14. Who was Thomas Holme?
    "Father of American Embalming"
  15. Who is J. Anthony Gaussardia?
    first patent for process of embalming method of injection of chemicals
  16. Between 1840 and 1860 experiments in the development and production of embalming fluid was carried out by whom?
    physicians, anatomists, chemists
  17. Who invented the trocar? When?
    Samuel Rogers, 1878
  18. What is the purpose of a trocar?
    fluids might be injected into and throughout cavity trunk
  19. The rise of arterial embalming in the US is associated with whom?
    Dr. Thomas Holmes
  20. Who was the first African-American embalmer
    Prince Greer
  21. Established a system for determining through examination the qualifications of persons who sought to embalm the military dead and provide for the licensing of successful candidates; a precursor to the National Board Exam
    Burr incident, Dr. Richard Burr
  22. Who manufactured a force pump for embalming?
    John Epply & Hudson Sampson
  23. In 1907, this man established a school of embalming on Boston
    A. Johnson Dodge
  24. Who discovered formaldehyde? When?
    Alezander Mikhailovich Butlerov & Wilhelm Von Hofmann; 1868
  25. Who had a poineer role in setting up the early embalming schools and institutes?
    Joseph H. Clark
  26. Who was one of the foremost teachers in his day and one of the best embalmers of the people in the late 1800's? ("Dean of Early Embalming")
    Auguste Renouard
  27. From the Civil War to the end of the century, the development of a commercial enterprise in the compounding and distribution of embalming fluids led to the rise of what?
    developing embalming schools and training users of fluid and use
  28. Known as "the Father of Embalming in the U.S."
    Dr. Tomas Holmes
  29. What were some of the names of early embalming fluids?
    Egyptian, Utopia, Oriental
  30. Who were some influential people in the development of embalming schools?
    Auguste Renouard, Joseph H. Clark, A, Johnson Dodge
  31. What was the role of the chemical manufacturer? What did the salesman do?
    Chemical manufacturer - made/experimented with chemicals for embalming

    Salesman - sold/traveled and taught people how to use the chemicals for embalming and casket companies
  32. The ultimate battle of ______ versus _____ in favor of ________
    Ice; Arsenic; Arterial & cavity embalming with fluids/chemicals
  33. Who was the pioneer and founder of the science of restorative art?
    Joel Crandall
  34. Where did the word "hearse" come from?
    French - herse, from Latin - hirpex (rake or harrow)
  35. Underbearers did what?
    relieved the bearers
  36. Why were horse drawn behicles put into use for funeral transportation?
    buriel grounds laid at greater distance from city
  37. Colonial America probably lacked the convenience of a hearse so what was probably used instead?
    hand, wagon, or buckboard
  38. What kind of funeral car did James Cunningham design in 1884?
    "funeral car"
  39. Who invented the eight poster oval decked funeral car?
    Hudson Samson
  40. Who exhibited the most elaborate and outstanding fineral car of the 19th century at the Chicago World's fair?
    Crane and Breed
  41. Undertakers of the late 1800s seemed to be on a buying cycle which recycled every ___ years
  42. What somber sight (as late as the 1920s) could be seen in Cleveland and Chicago carrying casket, mourners and flowers to suburban cemeteries?
    trolley cars
  43. What innovation did Fred Hulberg propose?
    combined hearse & passenger vehicle - combination of horse-drawn hearse, funeral trolley car, and automobile power plant
  44. Who was the first to add an auto-ambulance to their fleet in 1909?
    Cunningham factory of Rochester, NY
  45. What marked the beginning of the tendency to blend hearses and other conveyances in the funeral procession?
    Limousine hearses
  46. What was the innovation that made possible the loading of the body without the necessity of pallbearers walking out in the street and often into the snow and mud?
    side-loading feature for hearses
  47. The first motor hearses were mounted on what?
    truck chassis (open drivers cab type)
  48. Children's hearses were typically what color?
  49. Adult hearses were typically what color?
    black (dark colors)
  50. What was the prevailing funeral mood of the late 19th century?
    stiff formality overlaid heavily with gloom turned into beauty and expressiveness in latter (late 19th century)
  51. In the late 19th century, most deaths occurred where?
    at home
  52. Describe the scene at the house in late 19th century America when a person died
    hus fee, blinds drawn, people tiptoed and spoke in restrained tones (whispers)
  53. In the cities of the late 19th century, who took care of the body?
  54. In the rural area of the late 19th century, who prepared the body?
    women of the home; neighbors, friends, family helped
  55. Where did embalming take place in the late 19th century?
    in the home
  56. How were caskets selected in late 19th century?
    catalog, display room/stock room, casket showroom
  57. Describe the funeral cortege of the late 19th century
    procession: clergyman, flower carriage, honorary pallbearers, active pallbearers, herse, immediate family, friends

    long line of coaches & carriages moving slowly toward cemetary, presented an imposing spectacle, helped generated sense of importance social group attached to matter, hearse led
  58. Who relieved the funeral director of a portion of his duties at the cemetery?
    clergy sexton or cemetery superintendent
  59. The attitude change from gloom to beauty came about with the introduction of the
  60. Describe the most likely mode of sepulture and memorialization used in the late 19th century
    aspect of a park
  61. Coffin maker to furnishing undertaker to
    Funeral Director
  62. Describe briefly the associational impulse
    econmic revolution; agrarian society to characterized by industry, urbanism, and corporate business; trade union, trade association, colleagueship in professional organization
  63. Professional associations sought not only to formulate standards, control membership and enforce an inspectional system, but most of all
    assure several clienteles of high personal charactor and good moral standards of members
  64. Who erected America's first crematory?
    Dr. F. Julius LeMoyne
  65. Who were "drummers"?
    fluid/casket salesman who relayed information back to undertakers and casket makers/chemical makers
  66. The first formal association of undertakers occurred where?
  67. One of the first agents of communication to funeral directors was the
  68. The first trade magazine published in 1926 for the funeral industry was
    "The Undertaker"
  69. Who published the first trade paper in 1871?
    Henry E. Taylor
  70. Who controls your licensure?
  71. Who accredits the mortuary schools
    ABFSE (American Board of Funeral Service Education)
  72. Who is responsible for the writing of the National Board Exam?
    Conference of Funeral Service Examining Boards
  73. One of the largest associations representing funeral service today
    NFDA (National Funeral Directors Association)
Card Set
History: Embalming, Transportation 19th century, Associational Impulse