psych final

  1. scientific study of behavior and mental processes
  2. 4 Goals of Psychology
    • Description: What is happening?
    • Explanation: Why is it happening?
    • Prediction: When will it happen again?
    • Control: How can it be changed?
  3. tendency of observers to see what they want to see
    observer bias
  4. Schools of Psychology
    structuralism, functionalism, Gestalt, psychoanalysis, psychodynamic, behaviorism, humanistic
  5. Structure or basic elements of the mind (Edward Titchner)
  6. focus on how the mind allows people to adapt, live, work, & play (William James)
  7. focus on perception and sensation, perception of patterns and whole figures (Max Wertheimer)
  8. theory and therapy based on the work of Sigmund Freud
  9. focuses on observable behavior; operant conditioning of voluntary behavior (John Watson)
  10. Modern version of psychoanaylsis that is more focused on the development of a sense of self and the discovery of other motivations behind a person's behavior than sexual motivations
  11. emphasizes free will and human potential (Carl Rogers and Abraham Maslow)
  12. Steps of scientific method
    • Perceiving the Question
    • Forming a Hypothesis
    • Testing the hypothesis
    • Drawing Conclusions
  13. memory, intelligence, perception, problem solving and learning
  14. ¥branchlike structures that receive messages from other neurons¥attached to the cell body, the soma, which is the part of the cell that contains the nucleus and keeps the entire cell alive and functioning
  15. grey fatty cells that provide support for the neurons to grow on and around, deliver nutrients to neurons, produce myelin to coat axons, clean up waste products and dead neurons, influence information processing, and, during prenatal development, influence the generation of new neuron
    glial cells
  16. What are the parts of a neuron?
    dendrite, soma, axon
  17. cell body of the neuron responsible for maintaining the life of a cell
  18. tube-like structure that carries the neural message to other cells
  19. all nerves and neurons that are not contained in the brain and spinal cord but that run rhough the body itself
    peripheral nervous system (PNS)
  20. division of the PNS consisting of nerves that carry info from the senses to the CNS and from the CNS to the voluntary muscles of the body
    somatic nervous system
  21. division of the PNS consisting of nerves that control all of the involuntary muscles, organs, and glands
    automatic nervous system
  22. 6 types of brain imaging
    • deep lesioning
    • electroencephalograph (EEG)
    • computed tomography (CT)
    • magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)
    • Functional MRI (fMRI)
    • positron emission tomography (PET)
  23. insertion of a thin, insulated wire into the brain through which an electrical current is sent that destroys the brain cells at the tip of the wire
    deep lesioning
  24. machine designed to record the brain wave patterns produced by electrical acitvity of the surface of the brain
    electroencephalograph (EEG)
  25. brain imaging method using computer controlled x-rays of the brain
    computed tomography (CT)
  26. braing imaging mehtod using radio waves and magnetic fields of the body to produce detailed images of the brain
    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)
  27. computer makes a sort of movie of changes in activity of the brain using images from different time periods
    functional MRI
  28. brain imaging method in which a readioactive sugar is injected into the subject and a computer complies a coor coded image of the activity of the brain with lighter colors indicating more activity
    Positron emission tomography (PET)
  29. Why is learning thought to be permanent?
    because when people learn anything, some part of their brain is physically changed to record what they've learned
  30. learning to make a reflex response to a stimulus other than the original, natural stimulus that normally produces the reflex
    classical conditioning
  31. Who is the father of classical conditioning?
    Ivan Pavlov (salivating dogs)
  32. a naturally occurring stimulus that leads to an involuntary response
    unconditioned stimulus
  33. an involuntary response to a naturally occuring ot unconditioned stimulus
    unconditioned response
  34. stimulus that has no effect on the desired response
    neutral stimulus
  35. stimulus that becomes able to produce a learned reflec response by being paired with the original unconditioned stimulus
    conditioned stimulus
  36. learned reflex response to a conditioned stimulus
    conditioned response
  37. the tendency to respond to a stimulus that is only similiar to the priginal conditioned stimulus with the conditioned response
    stimulus generalization
  38. the reappearance of a learned response after extinction has occurred
    spontaneous recovery
  39. the disappearance or weakening of a learned response following the removal or absence of the unconditioned stimulus or the removal of an reinforcer
  40. development of a nausea or aversice response to a particular taste because that taste was followed by a nausea reaction, occuring after only one association
    conditioned taste aversion
  41. any behavior that is voluntary
  42. law stating that if a response is followed by a pleasurable consequences, it will tend to be repeated, and if followed by an unpleasant consequence, it will tend not to be repeated
    Law of Effect
  43. any event or stimulus, that when following a response, increases the probability that the response will occur again
  44. who first coined the term operant conditioning?
    BF Skinner
  45. reinforcement of a response by the removal, escape from, or aviodance of an unpleasant stimulus
    negative reinforcement
  46. reinforcement of a response by the addition or experiencing of a pleasurable stimulus
    positive reinforcement
  47. 3 steps of the memory process
    encoding, storage, retrieval
  48. 3 stages of information-processing model
    sensory memory, short term memory, and long term memory
  49. first stage of memory, the point at which information enters the nervous system through the semsory system
    sensory memory
  50. working memory; memory system in which information is held for brief periods of time while being used.
    short term memory
  51. ability to focus on only one stimulus from among all the sensory input
    selective attention
  52. system of memory into which all the information is placed to be kept more or less permanently
    long term memory
  53. "cocktail party effect"
    selective attention is responsible for this. When you're at a noisy party, but you are still able to hear when someone calls out your name through all the noise and conversations around you.
  54. working memory?
    short term memory; actively processing the info at any given moment
  55. "visual sketchpad"
    STM tends to be encoded in auditory form, some images are stored in a kind of visual aketchpad, but auditory storage accounts for much of STM encoding.
  56. "central executive"
    proposed the STM consists of three interrelated systems. a central executive that controls and coordinates the other two systems, "the visual sketchpad" and a kind of auditory "recorder"
  57. 3 types of rehearsal (STM)
    maintenance rehearsal, chunking, magical number 7
  58. practice of saying some info to be remembered over and over in one's head in order maintain it in STM
    maintenance rehearsal
  59. process of recoding, or reorganizing the info.
    Ex: remembering a telephone number in 3 groups 770-513-9909
  60. emotional distress or emotional pain while engaging in a particular behavior
    subjective discomfort (distress)
  61. anything that does not allow a erson to function within or adapt to the stresses and everyday demands of life
    maladaptive (dysfunction)
  62. defining abnormality is to see it as something that goes against norms or standards of the society in which the individual lives
    social norm deviance
  63. models of abnormality
    • biological: psychological disorder have biological or medical cause
    • psychological:explain disordered behavior as a result of various forms of emotional, behavioral, or thought relating malfunctioning
  64. psychological model of abnormality
    • psychoanaylsis: exaplains as a result og repressing or hiding one's threatening thoughts, memories or concerns in the unconcious mind
    • behavorism: explains as being learned
    • cognitive: explains as result of illogical thinking patterns
  65. disorders in which the main symptom is excessive or unrealistic anxiety and fearfulness
    anxiety disorders
  66. 4 anxiety disorders
    phobic disorders, obessive compulsive disorder, panic disorder, and generalized anxiety disorder
  67. anxiety that is unrelated to any realistic, knwon source
    free floating anxiety
  68. an irrational, persistent fear of an object, situation, or social acitivity
  69. disorder in which intruding, recurring thoughts or obsessions vreate anxiety that is reliever by performing a repetitive, ritualistic behavior(compulsion)
    obsessive-compulsive disorder
  70. disorder in which panic attacks occur frequently enough to cause the person difficulty in adjusting to daily life
    pain disorder
  71. disorder in which a person has feelings of dread and impending doom along with physical symptoms of stress, which lasts six months or more
    generalized anxiety disorder
  72. mood disorders
    major depression and bipolar disorder
  73. servere depression that comes on suddenly and seems to have no external cause
    major depression
  74. disorder that consists of mood swings from moderate depression to hypomania and lasts two yrs or more
  75. a moderate depression that lasts for two yrs or more and is typically a reaction to some external stressor
  76. servere mood swings between major depressive episodes and manic episodes
    bipolar disorder
  77. nondirective, client talks through problems, and therapist provides supportive background
    humanistic or person centered therapy
  78. teaches client thinking may be distorted
    cognitive therapy
  79. goals are to change illogical or distorted thinking, relieve symptoms/problems, develop strategies to solve future problems, and to change irrational, distorted thinking
    cognitive behavorial therapy
Card Set
psych final