1. What is the definition of Interpersonal Communication?
    Selective, systemic, unique, processual transactions that allow people to reflect and build personal knowledge of one another and create shared meanings.
  2. Who was Martin Buber? What are the three types of relationships he described?
    Buber was a philosopher; I-It, I-You, I-Thou.
  3. What is metacommunication?
    Communication about communication.
  4. What are the features of IPC (8 features)
    Selective, systemic, unique, processual, transactional, individual, personal knowledge, meaning creating.
  5. What are the principles of IPC (8 basic Principles)
    We cannot not communicate; interpersonal communication is irreversible; interpersonal communication involves ethical choices; people construct meanings in interpersonal communication; metacommunication affects meanings; interpersonal communication develops and sustains relationships; interpersonal communication is not a panacea; interpersonal communication effectiveness can be learned.
  6. What is the Johari Window?
    A model, developed by Luft & Ingham, of different sorts of knowledge that affect self-development. The types of knowledge described are open, blind, unknown, hidden.
  7. Who are the Uppers, Downers, and Vultures?
    Uppers = people who are reflecting positive appraisals of our self-worth. Downers = people who are expressing negative evaluations of us and our self-worth. Vultures = people who are not only communicating negative images of us but also attack our self-concepts just as actual vultures prey on their victims.
  8. What is a Self-fulfilling prophecy?
    It is when we internalize others' expectations or judgments about us and then behave in ways that are consistent with those expectations and judgments.
  9. What is Reflected appraisal?
    Our perception of another's view of us, which affects how we see ourselves.
  10. What are the four Attachment Styles?
    Secure, anxious/ambivalent, fearful, dismissive.
  11. Who are Particular Others?
    Specific people who are signficant to us.
  12. What is direct definition?
    Communication that tells us who we are by explicitly labeling us and our behaviors.
  13. Who are Generalized Others?
    Every society and social group has a generalized other, which reflects the shared values, experiences, and understandings of the particular society or social group.
  14. What is Self-Disclosure? Why is it important?
    Revealing information about ourselves that others are unlikely to discover on their own; an important way to learn about ourselves, gaining new perspectives on who we are as we see our revealed hopes, fears, dreams, and feelings reflected back at us.
  15. Perception
    The active process of creating meaning by selecting, organizing, and interpreting people, objects, events, situations, and other phenomena.
  16. Prototypes
    Defines the clearest or most representative examples of some category.
  17. Stereotypes
    Predictive generalizations applied to a person or situation.
  18. scripts
    A guide to action; the final cognitive schema we use to organize perceptions; sequences of activities that are expected of us and others in particular situations.
  19. Attribution
    An explanation of why something happened or why someone acts a certain way.
  20. Attribution Errors
    Common errors people make in their attributions.
  21. Self-serving Bias
    A bias toward ourselves and our interests.
  22. Influences on Perception
    Physiology, age, culture, cognitive abilities, self
  23. Cognitive Complexity
    The number of personal constructs used, how abstract they are, and how elaborately they interact to shape perceptions.
  24. Empathy
    The ability to feel with another person, to feel what she or he feels in a situation.
  25. Mindreading
    Assuming we understand what another person thinks, feels, or perceives.
  26. Ladder of Abstraction
    A model to illustrate the levels of abstraction
  27. What are symbols?
    Arbitrary, ambiguous, abstract representations of other phenomena.
  28. What are the five symbolic rules for language described in your textbook.
    Phonology, syntax, communication, regulative, constitutive.
  29. Symbols are Arbitrary
    Words are not intrinsically connected to what they represent.
  30. Symbols are ambiguous
    What they mean isn't clear-cut.
  31. Symbols are abstract
    They are not concrete or tangible.
  32. Speech Communities
    When people share norms about how to use talk and what purposes it serves; arise out of social locations; share perspective on communication that outsiders don't have.
  33. Regulative Rules
    Specify when, how, where, and with whom to talk about certain things.
  34. Constitutive Rules
    Specify how to interpret different kinds of communication.
  35. Punctuation
    Defines beginnings and endings of interaction episodes.
  36. What does language enable or prohibit (e.g. Language defines, evaluates, organizes perception, allows for hypothetical thought, self-reflection, etc.)
    Language defines, evaluates, organizes perceptions, allows hypothetical thought, allows self-reflection
  37. I/You Language
    I language takes responsibility, whereas YOU language projects it onto another person. I language is more descriptive than YOU language. YOU language tends to be accusatory and abstract. This is one of the reasons it's ineffective in promoting change. I language provides concrete descriptions of behaviors we dislike without directly blaming the other person for how we feel.
  38. Qualifying Language
    Reminds us of the limitations of what we say.
  39. Definition of Non-verbal Communication
    All aspects of communication other than words; includes gestures, body language, inflection, pauses, tone, volume, and accent.
  40. Similarities & Differences between verbal and nonverbal and why they are important
    Both are symbolic; both are rule-guided; both may be intentional or unintentional; both are shaped by and reflect culture; NV is perceived as more believable than V; NV occurs simultaneously in multiple channels, V tends to by unichanneled; NV is continuous, V symbols start and stop.
  41. Principles of nonverbal communication
    NV may supplement or replace V; NV may regulate interaction; NV often establishes relationship-level meanings; NV reflects & expresses cultural values.
  42. Percentage of communication from nonverbal
    65%-93% of total meaning of communication is NV.
  43. Kinesics
    Body position and body motions, including those of the face.
  44. Artifacts
    Personal objects we use to announce our identities and heritage and to personalize our environments.
  45. Physical Appearance
    Western culture places an extremely high value on physical appearance; we notice how others look & we often base our initial evaluations of others on their appearance; contributes to eating disorders, abuse of steroids & other drugs, and the popularity of cosmetic surgery.
  46. Paralanguage
    Communication that is vocal but does not use words; sounds, murmurs, gasps, vocal qualities, volume, pitch, inflection, accents, pronunciation, complexity of sentences.
  47. Chronemics
    How we perceive and use time to define identities and interaction.
  48. Proxemics
    Space and how we use it.
  49. Haptics
    Sense of touch.
  50. Silence
    Can communicate powerful messages; used to communicate different meanings; can strip one of personhood.
  51. Steps in the Listening Process
    Mindfulness; physically receiving messages; selecting and organizing material; interpreting communication; responding; remembering.
  52. Percentage of information recalled when listening and how long it takes for the message to degrade .
    Less than half (immediately), 35% (8 hours after hearing); we forget about 2/3 of what we hear.
  53. Barriers to effective listening from text and from notes in the online classroom/lecture
    External obstacles = message overload, message complexity; internal obstacles = preoccupation, prejudgment, reacting to emotionally loaded language, lack of effort, failure to adapt listening styles
  54. Definition of Emotional Intelligence
    The ability to recognize feelings, to judge which feelings are appropriate in which situations, and to communicate those feelings effectively.
  55. Framing Rules
    Define the emotional meaning of situations.
  56. Feeling Rules
    Tell us what we have a right to feel or what we are expected to feel in particular situations.
  57. Definition of Emotions
    Our experience and interpretation of internal sensations as they are shaped by physiology, perceptions, language, and social experiences.
  58. Difference between Deep and Surface Acting
    Deep acting = learning what you should and should not feel; surface acting = controlling the outward expression of emotions rather than controlling feelings themselves.
  59. Emotion work
    The effort to generate what we think are appropriate feelings in particular situations.
  60. Definition of Communication Climate
    The overall feeling or emotional mood between people - warm or cold, safe or anxious, comfortable or awkward, accepting or rejecting, open or guarded - that is shaped by verbal and nonverbal interaction between people.
  61. Investment
    What we put into relationships that we could not retrieve if the relationship were to end.
  62. Commitment
    A decision to remain in a relationship.
  63. Trust
    The willingness to be vulnerable without knowing it's safe; involves believing in another's reliability and emotionally relying on another to look out for our welfare and our relationship.
  64. Three Relational Dialectics
    Autonomy/connection; novelty/predictability; openness/closedness.
  65. How is relational dialectical tension resolved/solved? What is the least or most effective way to resolve that tension?
    Negotiation; least effective = selection; most effective = ??
  66. Confirming and disconfirming climates
    Confirming = person-centered - recognizes another's feelings and ideas as legitimate; disconfirming = non-person-centered - denies, ignores, challenges, or just doesn't attend to another's feelings and ideas.
  67. Gibbs Defensive and Supportive Climates
    Defensive climates = feel disconfirmed & on guard, unlikely to communicate openly with them; supportive climates = feel supported & confirmed, so we are likely to communicate freely with them.
  68. Aggressive communication
    YOU language
  69. Assertive communication
    I language
  70. Deferential communication
    Selection dialectic
  71. Definition of interpersonal conflict
    Exists when people in "I-You" or "I-Thou" relationships have different views, interests, or goals and feel a need to resolve those differences.
  72. What is the magic bullet for handling conflict constructively
  73. Principles of Conflict
    1 = Conflict is natural in relationships; 2 = conflict may be expressed overtly or covertly; 3 = social groups shape the meaning of conflict behaviors; 4 = conflict can be managed well or poorly; 5 = conflict can be good for individuals and relationships.
  74. Three Primary orientations to conflict (win-win, win-lose, lose-lose)
    Lose-lose = assumes that conflict results in losses for everyone and that it is unhealthy and destructive for relationships; win-lose = assume that one person wins at the expense of the other; win-win = assumes that there are usually ways to resolve differences so that everyone gains.
  75. Four Primary Responses to conflict
    The exit response = physically walking out or psychologically withdrawing; the neglect response = denies or minimizes problems, disagreements, anger, tension, or other matters that could lead to overt conflict; the loyalty response = staying committed to a relationship despite differences; the voice response = addresses conflict directly and attempts to resolve it.
  76. Counterproposals
    Offering competing ideas to get their own way.
  77. Kitchen sinking
    Everything except the kitchen sink is thrown into the argument.
  78. Conflict Management Strategies
    Attend to the relationship level of meaning; communicate supportively; listen mindfully; take responsibility for your thoughts, feelings, and issues; check perceptions; look for points of agreement; look for ways to preserve the other's face; imagine how you'll feel in the future.
  79. Stages in the development of friendships
    Role-limited interaction, friendly relations, moving toward friendship, nascent friendship, stabilized friendship, waning friendship.
  80. Who do married men say is the best friend?
  81. Pressures or threats to friendship
    Internal tensions = relational dialectics, diverse communication styles, sexual attraction; external pressures = competing demands, personal changes, geographic distance.
  82. How does sexual attraction impact friendship?
    Can cause difficulty because Western culture so strongly emphasizes gender and sex; it's difficult not to perceive people in sexual terms; even without sexual activity, sexual undertones may ripple beneath the surface of friendships.
  83. What three components make up the triangle of love?
    Passion, intimacy, commitment.
  84. Primary Styles of Love
    Eros = powerful, passionate style of love that blazes to life suddenly and dramatically; Storge = comfortable, even-keeled kind of love based on friendship and compatibility; Ludus = playful, all a game, not to be taken seriously.
  85. Secondary Styles of Love
    Pragma = pragmatic or practical love, ludus + storge; Mania = "madness from the gods," eros + ludus; Agape = unconditional love without expectation of personal gain or return, eros + storge.
  86. What are the stages of growth of relationships?
    Individuality, invitational communication, explorational communication, intensifying communication, revising communication, intimate bonding, commitment.
  87. What is relational culture?
    The nucleus of intimacy; a private world of rules, understandings, meanings, and patterns of acting and interpreting that partners create for their relationship; includes the ways in which a couple manages their relational dialectics.
  88. How does relational culture relate to relationship health?
    Relational culture includes the ways in which a couple manages their relational dialectics. Satisfied couples tend to agree on how to deal with dialectical tensions. Also includes rules and rituals.
  89. What is placemaking?
    The process of creating a comfortable personal environment that reflects the values, experiences, and tastes of the couple.
  90. What is the relationship life cycle?
    Growth, navigation, deterioration.
  91. What is grave-dressing in a relationship?
    Burying the relationship and accepting its end.
  92. What are the different types of marriages?
    Vital marriage, total marriage, passive-congenial marriage, devitalized marriage, conflict-habituated marriage.
  93. What is social exchange theory
    People apply economic principles to evaluate their relationships: they conduct cost-benefit analyses.
  94. What are the stages in the family life-cycle?
    Establishing a family, enlarging a family, developing a family, encouraging independence, launching children, postlaunching of children, retirement.
Card Set
Flash cards for Interpersonal Communication final exam