1. What is the outer layer of the kidney called?
  2. What is the inner layer of the kidney called?
  3. What are the triangular regions segregating the medulla?
    Renal pyramids
  4. What is the base of the renal pyramid called?
  5. What are the extensions of the renal pelvis?
    Calyces (calyx)
  6. What is the function if the calyx?
    It collects urine draining from the pyramids
  7. What is the basin like cavity attached to the kidney that is continuous with the ureter?
    Renal pelvis
  8. What are the anatomical units of the kidney responsible for making urine?
  9. What is the capillary knot of the nephron called?
  10. What is the enlarged tubule encasing the glomerulus?
    Bowman's capsule
  11. What structure feeds the glomerulus with blood?
    Afferent arteriole
  12. What structure drains the glomerulus of blood?
    Efferent arteriole
  13. Where is the glomerulus located in the kidney?
    In the cortex
  14. Where is the proximal tubule located in the kidney?
  15. Where is the distal convoluted tubule located in the kidney?
  16. Where is the loop of Henley located in the kidney?
  17. What are the divisions of the renal artery that lead into the kidney?
    Renal artery -> segmental arteries -> interlobar arteries -> arcuate arteries -> cortical radiate arteries -> afferent arterioles
  18. What are the veins draining the kidneys?
    Cortical radiate veins -> arcuate veins -> interlobar veins -> renal vein (*no segmental veins)
  19. What causes the endothelial membrane surrounding the glomerulus to be porous?
  20. The most common type of nephron
    Cortical nephron
  21. What structure do the collecting ducts run through?
    Renal pyramids (give them their striated appearance)
  22. What causes such a high pressure in the glomerular bed?
    1. It is being fed and drained by arterioles 2. The afferent arteriole is larger in diameter than the efferent arteriole
  23. What does the high hydrostatic pressure in the glomerular capillary bed allow?
    Filtration of fluid and blood components smaller than proteins to be processed by the nephron
  24. What does the peritubular capillary bed arise from?
    Efferent arteriole
  25. What are characteristics of the peritubular capillaries?
    Low pressure more adapted for absorption to take up solutes reabsorbed from the filtrate from the tubules
  26. What additional looping vessels do juxtamedullary nephrons have?
    Vasa recta
  27. What does the vasa recta do?
    Parallels the loop of Henle to perform role of peritubular capillaries
  28. What makes up the juxtaglomerular apparatus (JGA)?
    Granular cells (in arterioles near glomerulus) and macula densa (cells in distal convoluted tubule)
  29. What are the three stages of urine formation?
    Filtration, reabsorption, and secretion
  30. Where does filtration occur?
  31. Where does reabsorption begin?
    Proximal convoluted tubule
  32. Is filtration active or passive?
  33. Is reabsorption active or passive?
    Both. Water reabsorption is passive through osmosis but most substances require active transport
  34. What happens in secretion?
    Hydrogen and potassium ions and creatinine from blood to tubular cells or from tubular cells to filtrate to be disposed of
  35. What organ stored urine?
    Urinary bladder
  36. What is the process of voiding the urine called?
  37. What controls outflow of urine?
    Internal and external urethral sphincters
  38. What causes bladder evacuation?
    Stretch of the bladder wall activates stretch receptors to NS which produces reflex contractions of the bladder
  39. What causes the urge to urinate?
    Pressure on the superior portion if the urethra
  40. Is the external urethral sphincter skeletal or smooth muscle?
  41. What carries unine from the kidneys to the bladder?
  42. What drains the bladder?
  43. What is the triangle region of the bladder near the ureteral openings?
  44. What is the function of the trigone?
    Funnels the urine down to the urethra and prevents backflow into the ureters
  45. What surrounds the kidneys?
    Fibrous capsule
  46. What type of waste is the urinary system primarily responsible for?
  47. What other functions does the kidney have besides excretion?
    Electrolyte, acid-base, and fluid balances of the blood
  48. What is the major homeostatic organ of the body?
  49. Identify the ureter in a slide
    See book
  50. Identify mucosa if transitional epithelium and smooth muscle types
    See book
  51. Identify bowman's capsule, glomerulus, and convoluted tubules on a slide
    See book
  52. What do the renal columns contain?
    Blood vessels running to and from the cortex
  53. What are juxtamedullary nephrons important for?
    Urine concentration
  54. What allows for a large amount of filtration?
    Porous glomerular membrane and filtration slits in the visceral layer of Bowman's capsule
  55. What type of capillaries line Bowman's capsule?
    Fenestrated capillaries
  56. What produce filtration slits?
    Interlaced pedicels
  57. What is the parietal layer of Bowman's capsule made of?
    Epithelial cells with tight junctions to keep in the filtrate
  58. What causes filtration?
    Fluid pressure
  59. What is filtered?
    Water and small dissolved molecules
  60. How much fluid is filtered per day by the kidneys?
  61. Where does filtration occur?
    Bowman's capsule
  62. Where does reabsorption occur?
    Tubules of the nephron
  63. Where and how are glucose and a.a. reabsorbed?
    Proximal tubule and by active co-transport
  64. Where and how is salt reabsorbed?
    Proximal tubule, ascendng limb of Henle's loop, and distal tubule; by passive transport
  65. Where and how is water reabsorbed?
    Mostly proximal convoluted tubule (Obligatory), then the descending loop of Henle (obligatory), and lastly the collecting tubule (facultative)
  66. What does water reabsorption in the collecting tubule depend on?
  67. What is the countercurrent multiplier?
    Increases water reabsorbed from the descending limb of Henle due to sodium absorbed in the ascending limb
  68. What process keeps the medulla hypertonic?
    Countercurrent exchange of salt in the vasa recta
  69. How does countercurrent exchange work?
    Descending limb of the vasa recta picks up NaCl from medulla and ascending limb gives up NaCl to medulla
  70. How is secretion accomplished?
    Active transport
  71. What is the purpose of the secretion phase?
    Release toxins and residues, establishes electrolyte balance, and maintains acid-base balance
  72. What is secreted to balance out Na+ reabsorption?
  73. What is secreted during moderately acidic conditions?
    H+ (also less K+)
  74. What is secreted during extremely acidic conditions?
  75. What does ADH control?
    Faculative water reabsorption in the collecting tubule
  76. What gland controls the ADH mechanism?
    Posterior pituitary
  77. What controls blood osmolarity?
  78. How does the hypothalamus control blood osmolarity?
    When osmolarity increases (due to water deficiency), the hypothalamus signals to the posterior pituitary to secrete ADH so more water will be reabsorbed
  79. Deficiency of what hormone caues diabetes insipidus?
  80. What does the juxtaglomerular apparatus control?
    Tubuloglomerular feedback
  81. What do the macula densa cells do?
    Monitor salt concentration, glomerular filtration rate (GFR), and glomerular pressure
  82. An increase in salt concentration would do what to the GFR?
    Decrease it
  83. What do juxtaglomerular cells do?
    Secrete renin when stimulated by macula densa cells
  84. What does renin do?
    Activates angiotensinogen to eventually become angiotensin II
  85. What does angiotensin II do?
    Constricts the efferent arteriole and causes adrenal cortex to release aldosterone
  86. How do the macula densae cells act directly on the juxtaglomerular cells?
    Dilates the afferent arterioles and constricts the efferent arterioles (Dramatic increase of GFR)
  87. What does myogenic autoregulation do?
    Vasoconstricts the afferent arteriole to decrease blood flow and GFR for short periods of time
  88. What converts angiotensin I to angiotensin II?
    Angiottensin converting enzyme (ACE)
  89. What does the heart-renal connection do with high blood volume and pressure?
    Inhibits ADH secretion, releases ANF, dilates afferent arteriole, reduces Na+ reabsorption to increase urine released
  90. What does the heart-renal connection do with low blood volume and pressure?
    Increases ADH secretion, vasoconstricts the afferent arteriole
  91. Where do the layers of smooth muscle switch order with longitudinal on the inside?
  92. What does the detrusor muscle do?
    Aids in bladder excretion
  93. What are the different linings of the urethra?
    Transitional near bladder, pseudostratified columnar epithelium in middle, and stratifiec squamous epithelium near external exit
  94. What are the stages of the micturition reflex?
    Presso-receptors in bladder stimulated, stimulus arrives at the pons, mild contraction of detrusor muscle and relaxation of internal urethral sphincter, and voluntary relaxation of external sphincter and forcefull contraction of detrusor muscle
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