What 2 layers is the atmosphere composed of?
The troposphere and stratosphere.
What does the troposphere do?
It supports life.
What is in the stratosphere?
The protective ozone layer.
What percent of the earth's air mass is in the troposphere?
What tends to happen to the pressure and temprature as you go up in altitude?
The pressure increases, and temperature decreases.
What kinds of pollutants are there?
Natural and human made.
What is a primary pollutant?
A direct source, such as CO2 released from a car.
What is secondary pollution?
Primary pollutants that mix in the atmosphere.
What outdoor pollution problems are there?
Industrial smog from coal, photochemical smog from motor and industrial emissions, and acid deposition from coal and motor vehicle exhaust.
What types of pollutants are there?
- Carbon Oxides ( CO, CO2)
- Nitrogen Oxides and Nitric Acid ( NO, NO2, HNO3)
- Sulfur Dioxide and Sulfuric Acid ( So2, H2SO4)
- Particulates ( SuspendedParticleMatter)
- Ozone (O3)
- Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs)
Where does industrial smog come from?
Where are industrial smog problems in control
In developed countries, such as the U.S. and Europe, unlike in developing countries like China, India, and the Ukraine.
What is South Asia's brown cloud?
A cloud of pollution extending from India and Bangladesh to China's Pacific east that turns the sky a permanent gray/brown.
What is photochemical smog?
A mixture of primary and secondary pollutants activated by light, such as brown air. Due to P-C reactions.
What health problems can this cause?
Eye and respiratory irritation, and lung tissue damage.
What causes natural reduction in outdoor air pollution?
Particles heavier than air, rain and snow, sea spray, winds, and chemical reactions.
What factors naturaly increase outdoor air pollution?
Hills and mountains, high temperatures, emissions of volatile organic compounds, the grasshopper effect, and temperatur inversions.
What creates acid deposition?
Sulfur dioxides and nitrogen oxides.
What kinds of acid deposition is there?
Wet and dry.
What problems does acid deposition create?
Acid rain and regional air pollution.
What facilities create this?
Midwest coal burning power plants.
What are the harmful effects of acid deposition?
Structural damage, respiratory diseases in humans, toxic metal leaching, harms aquatic ecosystems, leach plant nutrients from soil, and create acid clouds and fog at mountaintops.
What are some indoor pollution problems?
Smoke and soot from wood and coal fires (developing countries), and chemicals from building materials/products.
True/False: Indoor air pollution is less concentrated than outdoor air pollution.
What are the major indoor air pollutants?
Tobacco smoke, formaldehyde, radioactive radon-222 gas, and very small particles.
What are the natural defenses of the human respiratory system?
Cilia, mucus, sneezing, and coughing.
What can happen when the human respiratory system is overwhelmed?
This can lead to lung cancer, chronic bronchitis, emphysema, and asthma.
How mang people die from the effects of air pollution?
2.4 million annually.
How can we deal with air pollution?
Through legal, economic, and technological tools.
What sort of air pollution control laws are there?
Clean air acts and EPA standards for 6 major pollutants: CO,NO2, SO2, SPM, Ozone, and lead.
How can air pollution laws be improved?
- By emphasizing prevention
- Increasing fuel-economy standards
- Regulating 2-cycle emissions
- Regulating ultra-fine particles
- Increasing regulations for indoor air pollution
- Better enforcing clean air act.
What are the pros and cons of emissions trading?
- Pros- It's cheaper and more efficient.
- Cons- Compnaies can buy their way out
How can the emissions trading progam be successful?
The cap must be gradually lowered.
What is the reason for significant climate change during this century?
Emissions of greenhouse gases from human activities.
What sort of climate changes have occurred in the past?
Glacial and interglacial periods, and global cooling and warming.
How can past changes be measured?
By using rocks and fossils, ice cores from glaciers and tree rings.
What are the natural greenhouse gases?
Water vapor (H2O), Carbon Dioxide (CO2), Methan (CH4), and Nitrous Oxide (N2O)
What is evidence is their to support climate change?
- The 2007 Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change report shows:
- A rise in average global surface temperature
- The 10 warmest years on record since 1970
- Annual greenhouse gas emissions up 70% between 1970 and 2008.
- Changes in glaciers, rainfall patterns, and hurricanes
- 4-8 in sea level rise in this century.