1. What is Learning?
  2. a. Learning can be defined as a change in behavior as a result of experience. For example, Marriage is a change in behavior
  3. 1) Characteristic of learning
  4. a. Learning is purposeful. For Example, Each student has a specific goal. If student A is going to be a professional pilot, he will study harder then the private pilot who only wants to fly small planes.
    • b. Learning is a result of experience. For Example, a student pilot flying a plane for the first time is experience, and he/she will perfect his/her flying skills from experience.
    • c. Learning is Multifaceted. For Example, your verbal, conceptual, emotional elements all taking place at once. I.e. in a classroom where everyone is participating. Learning is an Active Process. For example, when a student is teaching, it’s an active process
  5. 1) Principles of learning
  6. a. R-eadiness: The student has to be ready to learn R
    • b. E-xercise: Things that most often repeated are best remembered.
    • c. E-ffect: It’s an emotional reaction. Learning is strengthened when accompanied by a pleasant feeling.
    • d. P-rimacy: when something is taught, it should be right the first time.
    • e. I-ntensity: it’s a vivid experience. For example, doing spins or stalls
    • f. R-ecency: Things that most recently learned are best remembered.
  7. 1) How do people Learn?
  8. a. Perception: is when a person gives meaning to a sensation from sight, hearing, touch, smell, and taste. For example: when a student learns how to do stalls from seeing, hearing and feeling the aircraft.
    • b. Insight: is a grouping of perception. For example: The student doing stalls learns more about the power settings, and why we do certain things for stalls.
    • c. Motivation: is dominant force which governs the student progress
  9. 1) Levels of Learning
  10. a. Rote: Repeating something back that was told to you.
    • b. Understanding
    • c. Application: applying it to the outside world.
    • d. Correlation: for example: you finished your flight training and you go out to fly, and the plane engine stops, all the previous flight training comes in to play.
  11. 1) Domains of learning
  12. a. Cognitive (Knowledge) For Example: Taking ground school makes you smarter
    • b. Affective (Attitude, personal beliefs, values) For Example: Student having a good or bad attitude
    • c. Psychomotor (Physical) For example: Skills on flying, shooting an ILS
  13. 1) Learning Physical Skills
  14. a. Physical Skills involve more than muscles (Perception changes as the physical skill becomes easier)
    • b. Desire to Learn (Shorter initial learning time and more rapid progress)
    • c. Patterns to follow (Provide a simple step by step example)
    • d. Perform the skills (Student needs coordination between muscles and visual and tactile senses)
    • e. Knowledge of results (Students need to know there progress)
    • f. Progress follows a pattern (rapid improvement in the early stages but then there’s a plateau)
    • g. Duration and organization of a lesson (Don’t practice the same thing over and over if the student knows it)
    • h. Evaluation versus critique (Initial stage, practical suggestions are more valuable to the student then a grade)
    • i. Application of skill
  15. 1) Memory
  16. a. Sensory Register- receives input from the environment. (If the fire alarm goes of right now, the sensory registry is going to kick in and tell the working memory)
    • b. Working or Short Term memory
    • c. Long term memory
  17. 1) Theories of forgetting
  18. a. Disuse
    • b. Interference
    • c. Repression
  19. 1) Retention of learning
  20. a. Praise stimulates remembering- response which give a pleasurable return tend to be repeated.
    • b. Recall is promoted by association
    • c. Favorable attitudes aid retention- people learn and remember only what they wish to know.
    • d. Learning with all our senses is most effective
    • e. Meaningful repetition aids recall
    • 2) Human Needs
    • a. Physical
    • b. Safety
    • c. Social
    • d. Egoistic
    • e. Self-Fulfillment
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