1. What are antibiotics used for?
    to kill bacteria and ultimately to treat the bacterial infection
  2. What should you do before starting treatment with antibiotics?
    Culture & sensitivity of affected part.
  3. What are the 4 different ways to prescribe antibiotics?
    • Empiric
    • propholactic
    • broad spectrum
    • narrow spectrum
  4. What is empiric therapy?
    treating with antibiotics before identifying the bacteria
  5. What is Prophylactic therapy
    Giving an antibiotic to prevent and infection
  6. What is meant by broad spectrum?
    effective against several groups of microorganisms. Antibiotics cover a large group of infections
  7. What is meant by narrow spectrum therapy?
    effective against a few groups
  8. what is the definition of bactericidal
    kill bacteria
  9. What is the definition of bacteriostatic
    inhibit growth of susceptible bacteria, rather than killing them immediately; will eventually lead to bacterial death
  10. what is a superinfections?
    elimination of good and bad bacteria therefore allow other bacteria or fungus to grow
  11. What are the teaching instructions for a patient going home with tetracyclines?
  12. Mechanism of action for Penicillins?
    • 1. Interfers with the ability of the bacteria to build cell wall
    • 2. prevents bacteria from biosynthesizing
    • 3. weaken bacterial cell wall
    • 4. cells swell and burst from the osmotic pressure in cell
  13. Mechanism of action for Quinolons
    • 1. bacterialcide
    • 2. effective against gram negative and some gram positive
    • 3. alter DNA of bacteria, causing death
    • 4. do not affect human DNA
  14. What is mechanism of action for Sulfonamides
    • 1. bacteriostatic
    • 2. prevent systhesis folic acid
    • 3. does not affect human cell growth
  15. What are teaching and discharge instructions for tetracycline
    • 1. Thus, dairy products, antacids, and iron salts reduce absorption of Tetracyclines, except Doxycycline
    • 2. Strong affinity for calcium
    • 3. Discoloration of permanent teeth and tooth enamel in fetuses and children
    • 4. May retard fetal skeletal development if 1st trimester of pregnancy
  16. Tetracycline side effects
    • Alteration in intestinal flora may result in:
    • - Superinfection (overgrowth of nonsusceptible organisms such as Candida)
    • - Diarrhea
    • - Pseudomembranous colitis
  17. What do you do before you start antibiotics?
    Culture & sensitivity
  18. What do we primarily use Flagyl for?
    • 1. Active against anaerobic organisms
    • 2. H-Pylori
    • 3. Intestinal amebiasis
    • 4. Trichomoniasis
    • 5. Clostridium difficile
    • 6. Bacterial vaginosis
    • 7. prophylaxis for colorectal surgery
  19. What are nursing interventions for anti-TB drugs
    • Hepatoxicity, headaches, blood dyscriasis, GI distress. STRESS NEED to complete drug therapy.
    • Collect sputum specimens in early am, before eating,
    • Assess for weight loss.
    • Monitor for hepatotoxicity, Jaundice, clay colored stools, dark urine, elevated liver enzymes
  20. What is Amphotericin B given for?
    Severly systemic Fungal infections
  21. What is the duration of action for Amphotericin B?
    20 hours
  22. Is Ampotericin B toxic or non-toxic?
    Highly toxic
  23. How is Ampotericin B administered?
    • IV route only
    • premedication is sometimes used
  24. What is Ampotericin B contraindicated for?
    hepatic or renal disease
  25. What are the side effects and adverse reactoins for Amphotericin B?
    • Fever, chills , nausea and vomitin
    • Hypotension
    • Paresthesias
    • Thrombophlebitis
    • Muscle weakness
    • Nephrotoxicity
    • Electrolyte imbalances
    • Cardiac dysrhythmias and seizures
    • anemia
  26. As a nurse what are you going to assess for first with Amphotericin B?
    cardiac dysrhythmias and seizures
  27. What is meant by Peak and Trough?
    • Peak= 30-60 min after infused
    • Trough= immediately before administration of next dose
  28. What is photosensitivity?
    increased sensitivity to the sun and other UV
  29. How is Vancimycin administered?
    10 mg/min.
  30. Know what antiviral are used to treat?
    • Flu
    • Herpes
    • CMV
    • Hepatitis B
    • HIV are viruses
  31. How do viruses replicate?
    • inside living cell
    • Antivirals inhibit viral replication
  32. Teaching responsibilities for client taking penicillin?
    • take the whole prescription
    • take with full glass of water
    • don't store drugs in sunlight or heat
  33. When taking Sulphanomydes the nurse needs to make sure pt does this ___________, and this ______________
    • Stay out of the sun
    • drink 2000 mL of water
    • if female, use another form of birth control
Card Set
Antibiotics, Pharmocology, nursing 2