Once Israel would recognize the United States and not be under the United Kingdom,
· they would be able to break away and go to war in Sinai and other countries to attack them;
they invaded Egypt in the Sinai on
· October 1956. The U.S. and U.K. told them both that they need to quit fighting, but they did not comply with that request;
Dwight Eisenhower noticed something was up with the British and the French and then started cracking down against these countries with their joint participation in this war.
· This was happening during the new presidential elections in the United States; Eisenhower let British know if they did not pull out, they would make the pound nothing because the British relied on the U.S. for this.
Eisenhower did not want to alienate the Arab world mainly because of oil;
the French and British did seize fire a day after they landed on the Sinai Peninsula. After this crisis was over, there were some reproductions;
Eisenhower made an anti-communist doctrine known as the Eisenhower doctrine
· in July 1957. In July of 1958, this doctrine would be applied but not against communism even though Eisenhower thought it was working; Lebanon was a Christian country and was moving towards a minority, Beirut was invaded by the
U.S. in 1958 to turn away from communism. The Americans did not have to fight anyone but made sure communism wasn’t taking over in Lebanon.
The U.S. was starting to become more involved in the Middle East as far as military intervention;
· Eisenhower won his 2nd term very easily but America was becoming anxious about foreign issues.
Sputnik won and was the new Soviet satellite that went into orbit;
· Oct 4, 1957. the fact that the Soviets could do this before the U.S. suggested that the Soviets were ahead of the U.S. in terms of missile technology. There was a missile gap and if favored the U.S. and Kennedy helped look into that. Congress
started to respond after Sputnik, they made the
National Defense Education Act
· in 1958; it was to improve the American capacity for American defense. This helped high school and college students speak new languages and also science and math were hit on for young Americans could have skills to be scientists.
NASA was started in
· 1958 by Eisenhower and was to help boost the space race with Americans;
in May of 1959,
· Nikita Khrushchev of Russia wanted all of Western Europe was supposed to come together and negotiate directly with East Berlin. West German government did not recognize the East German government and in winter of 1958, the Berlin Crisis started; nothing had changed and Western Europe did not listen to Eastern Europe
By 1959, Eisenhower had a new problem with
Cuba in the Caribbean;
On January 1, 1959,
Fidel Castro seized power in Cuba with a dictatorship. This was the beginning of a communist revolution; the Eisenhower Administration reacted negatively to Castro, he looked aboard for new friends. By 1960-61, Castro joined the Soviets in the Cold War; Cuba became a divisive issue in the presidential elections.
Eisenhower still wanted to improve relations with the Soviets;
he was looking for a summit in May of 1960 with Khrushchev; the Americans were using U-2 airplanes and one was shot down over Russia. Eisenhower lied and said it was an unmanned airplane to cover it up; Powers did live through this and was taken hostage in Russia. Khrushchev used this at the Summit Conference in Paris and revive the Berlin Crisis;
Eisenhower was then done and the election of 1960
· John Kennedy and Richard Nixon were the two runners; Kennedy won and used Lyndon B. Johnson as his running mate even though Kennedy didn’t think he was going too.
Kennedy had a plan where he wanted to invade Cuba
and topple Fidel Castro because something needed to be done; all of this worked to help Kennedy in his election. Eisenhower had his fare well address and warned the military complex; he was pretty much saying not to follow what Kennedy wanted to do because it was the wrong road to go down.
Americans started realizing there was such a thing as a 3rd world now;
· Kennedy saw these 3rd world countries as places where the 1st and 2nd world countries would fight over. These 3rd world countries were not aligned with an upper power house and Kennedy believed that if they did not get with an upper power, the Soviets would take over and become a communist country.
The Peace Core was a part of the Cold War effort to make sure
· 3rd world countries would not fall into communism; it was targeted at newly graduated college students following the U.S. banner and teaching and spreading American values to 3rd world countries.
Many young people that went into the peace core learned
· that these 3rd world countries were quite different from America and from a communist country;
the alliance for progress in Latin America Kennedy announced
· economic assistance to Latin America. This was one of his counters to Castro and was on the verge of revolution in Cuba and other Latin countries; the space race was also launched by Kennedy with the Soviets and wanted to land Americans on the moon before the end of the decade.