ANT 003

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  1. Pyrotechology
    production of ceramics requires the control of fire
  2. First Baked Clay Objects:
    • Dolni Vestonice- Czech Republic, ca. 26,000 B.P.
    • -an inverntion that didnt seem to catch on
    • -no further evidence of pottery until post-glacial period; until more sedentary conditions made pots more desirable, necessary and practical
  3. Ceramic Vessels Impractical
    • might have been to heavy or fragile for mobile hunter-gatherer groups
    • the use of tightly woven basket, skin or gut bags were the more appropriate
  4. Once ceramics appear they become an abundant artifact class:
    • - chemically inert and preserve well
    • - complex artifacts- both additive and altered
    • - manufactured in multiple ways
    • - made of clay that can be sourced
    • - can be decorated used to document changes in style/seriation
  5. Main use for cermics (more versatile and durable than basketry):
    • - containers
    • - food storage
    • - protection from rodents, insects, oxygen
    • - cooking vessels
  6. Origin of Ceramics Hypotheses:
    • a.) Hearth hypothesis- someone accidentally heated clay near a fire hearth, noticed the change, and then began experimenting to develop and perfect the technology (trial-and-error).
    • b.) Basket theory- a basket was caulked with clay to make it more waterproof for cooking. Then they accidentally burned the basket, which fired the clay and produced a ceramic pot
  7. Ceramic
    can be defined as artificially bonded (by chemical/molecular alteration) non-metal earth materials; typically clay

    Clay is broadly defined as a fine-grained earthy material that develops plasticity when mixed with water; in other words it is capable of being molded.

    Temper is the aplastic filler used in clay to help control for shrinkage and to lower the required firing temperature. it allows water in the clay to escape more readily and this prevents or reduces cracking.

    Together clay and temper constitute paste
  8. Steps of Manufacture
    • 1. Shaping
    • 2. Drying
    • 3. Firing
  9. Methods of Shaping:
    • - modeling
    • - coil construction
    • - molding
    • - wheel turning
    • - paddle and anvil
  10. Surface Treatment
    • - plain
    • - cord marked
    • - stamped
    • - corrugated
    • - smoothed
    • - brushed
  11. Attatchents
    attatching things to surface- e.g. handles, clay design
  12. Paints
    • 1. fugitive paints (vegetable pigments) -these must be applied after firing or they would be burned off during firing (organic)
    • 2. non-fugitive (mineral pigments)- applied before firing and generally change color with firing
  13. Glazes
    vitreous coating that forms a hard, glass-like coating when fired at over 1000 degrees C.
  14. Firing
    open pit or kiln
  15. Types of archaeological sherd fragments:
    • - rim
    • - body
    • - base
    • - neck
    • - shoulder
    • - spout
    • - handle
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ANT 003
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