1. What does a gamete consist of?
    sperm & 2nd oocyte
  2. What are the primary sex organs? And what do they produce?
    Gonads produce gametes
  3. What do gonads secrete?
    Sex hormones
  4. Reproductive systems:
    Ducts, glands & supporting structures
    Accessory sex organs
  5. male gonad located in scrotum
  6. Sac of loose skin, fascia & smooth muscle (dartos) divided into two pouches by septum
  7. What temperature does sperm require?
    3 degrees lower temperature than core body temperature
  8. Scrotum:
    • elevates testes on exposure to cold & during arousal
    • warmth reverses the process
    Cremaster muscle in spermatic cord
  9. Develop near kidney on posterior abdominal wall
    Descent of Testes
  10. Descent of Testes:
    Descends into scrotum by passing through ______ ______
    – during 7th month of fetal development
    inguinal canal
  11. tunnel passing through the3 muscles of the anterior abdominal wall -- weakens wall
    Inguinal canal
  12. Loop of intestine protruding through inguinal canal
    More common in males
  13. Paired oval glands
  14. Testes:
    Surrounded by dense white capsule called _____ _______
    – septa form compartments called lobules
    tunica albuginea
  15. Each is filled with seminiferous tubules where sperm are formed
  16. Location of sperm formation:
    All stages of sperm development: from spermatogonia to spermatozoa
    Supporting cells called sertoli cells
    Seminiferous tubules
  17. Cells in between tubules secrete testosterone
  18. Formation of sperm cells from spermatogonia.
  19. Spermatogonium (stem cells) give rise to ___ daughter cells by mitosis
  20. Spermatogenesis:
    One daughter cell kept in reserve -- other becomes _____ _________
    primary spermatocyte
  21. Spermatogenesis:
    Goes through various stages of meiosis to produce 4 spermatazoa
    Primary spermatocyte
  22. Supporting Cells of Sperm Formation:
    - Extend from basement membrane to lumen
    – Form blood-testis barrier
    – Support developing sperm cells
    – Produce fluid & control release of sperm into lumen
    – Secrete inhibin which slows sperm production by inhibiting FSH
    Sertoli cells
  23. Sperm Morphology:
    Adapted for reaching & penetrating a secondary ______
  24. Sperm Morphology:
    Head contains..
    DNA & acrosome (enzymes)
  25. Sperm Morphology:
    Contains mitochondria to form ATP
  26. Sperm Morphology:
    Flagellum used for locomotion
  27. Hormonal Control of Spermatogenesis:
    Anterior pituitary increases secretion of LH & FS
  28. Hormonal Control of Spermatogenesis:
    Stimulates Leydig cells to secrete testosterone(male sexual characteristics)
  29. Hormonal Control of Spermatogenesis:
    stimulates spermatogenesis
  30. Hormonal Effects of Testosterone:
    Final development of 2nd sexual characteristics and adult reproductive system
  31. Hormonal Effects of Testosterone:
    – sexual behavior & libido
    – male metabolism (bone & muscle mass heavier)
    – deepening of the voice
  32. Pathway of Sperm Flow through the Ducts of the Testis (3 parts)
    • 1. Seminiferous tubules
    • 2. Ductus epididymis
    • 3. Ductus (vas) deferens
  33. Histology of the Epididymis:
    – lined with pseudostratified columnar epithelium
    – layer of smooth muscle
    Ductus epididymis
  34. Histology of the Epididymis:
    Site of sperm maturation– motility increases over 2 week period
    Ductus epididymus
  35. • Storage for 1-2 months
    • Propels sperm onward
    Ductus epididymis
  36. Pathway of 18 inch muscular tube
    – ascends along posterior border of epididymis
    – passes up through spermatic cord and inguinal ligament
    – reaches posterior surface of urinary bladder
    – empties into prostatic urethra with seminal vesicle to form the ejaculatory duct
    Ductus (Vas) Deferens
  37. Lined with pseudostratified columnar epithelium & covered with heavy coating of muscle
    Ductus (Vas) Deferens
  38. – convey sperm along through peristaltic contractions
    – stored sperm remain viable for several month
    Ductus (Vas) Deferens
  39. • Male sterilization
    • Vas deferens cut & tied off
    • Sperm production continues
    • Sperm degenerate
    • 100% effective
    • 40% reversible
  40. Pair of pouchlike organs found posterior to the base of bladder
    Seminal Vesicles
  41. Alkaline, viscous fluid
    – 60% of the volume of semen
    – neutralizes vaginal acid & male urethra (fructose for ATP production)
    – prostaglandins stimulate sperm motility & viability
    – clotting proteins for coagulation of semen
    Seminal vesicles
  42. Single organ the size of chestnut found inferior to bladder
    Prostate Gland
  43. Secretes milky, fluid that increases sperm motility and viability (25% of volume of semen)
    (citric acid for ATP production & enzymes (PSA-Prostate specific antigen) for seminal liquefaction )
    Prostate Gland
  44. Paired, pea-sized gland within the UG diaphragm
    Bulbourethral or Cowper’s Gland
  45. Secretes alkaline mucous into spongy urethra
    Bulbourethral or Cowper’s Gland
  46. Neutralizes acids and lubricates
    Bulbourethral or Cowper’s Gland
  47. Mixture of sperm & seminal fluid
    Typical ejaculate is 2.5 to 5 ml in volume
    Normal sperm count is 50 to 150 million/ml– actions of many are needed for one to enter
  48. Coagulates within 5 minutes -- reliquefies in 15 due to enzymes produced by the prostate gland
    Semen analysis----bad news if show lack of forward motility, low count or abnormal shape
  49. Passageway for urine & semen
    Prostatic urethra
    Membranous urethra (passes through UG diaphragm )
    Penile (spongy) urethra (through corpus spongiosum)
  50. Passageway for semen & urine
    Composed of root, body & glans penis
  51. Body composed of three erectile tissue masses filled with blood sinuses
  52. Cross-Section of Body of Penis:
    – Upper paired, erectile tissue masses
    – Begins as crura of the penis attached to the ischial &pubic rami and covered by ischiocavernosus muscle
    Corpora cavernosa
  53. Cross-Section of Body of Penis:
    – lower erectile tissue mass
    – surrounds urethra
    – begins as bulb of penis connected to the UG, covered by bulbospongiosus muscle
    – ends as glans penis
    Corpus spongiosum
  54. • Consists of bulb and crura:
    • Bulb of penis or base of corpus spongiosum enclosed by bulbospongiosus muscle
    • Crura of penis or ends of corpora cavernosa enclosed by ischiocavernosus muscle
    Root of Penis & Muscles of Ejaculation
  55. • Enlarged distal end of corpus spongiosum
    • External urethral orifice is small slit
    • Covered by loosely fitting prepuce or foreskin
    Glans Penis
  56. – Sexual stimulation dilates the arteries supplying the penis
    – Blood enters the penis compressing the veins so that the blood is trapped.
    – A parasympathetic reflex
  57. – muscle contractions close sphincter at base of bladder and move fluids through ductus deferens, seminal vesicles, & ejaculatory ducts
    – ischiocavernous & bulbospongiosus complete the job
Card Set
Male reproductive system