1. Inner portion of kidney where urine is collected
    Renal Pelvis
  2. Functional unit of the kidney. Contains glomerulus and tubules. Each kidney contains ~1.2 million of these
  3. transfers urine to the bladder
  4. End product of muscle metabolism
    Plasma Creatinine
  5. End product of protein metabolism
    BUN - Blood Urea Nitrogen
  6. Amt of blood cleared of creatinine in one minute. Measure of the glomerular filtration rate.
    Creatinine clearance
  7. Most accurate measurement of kidney's ability to concentrate and dilute urine
  8. Outer portion of kidney; contains 85% of the nephrons
  9. Middle portion of the kidney; w/medullary pyramids, Henle's loop, distal & collecting tubules
  10. Branches off from abdominal aorta; supplies blood to the kidney
    Renal artery
  11. Carries blood leaving the kidney
    Renal vein
  12. Beginning of the nephron; bundle of capillaries; filtration of water, ee's, urea, creatinine, uric acid, glucose, amino acid
  13. Cup-like depression of nephron that surrounds the glomerulus
    Bowman's Capsule
  14. Hormone that stimulates bone marrow to produce rbc's; released when there is decreased O2 delivery to the kidneys
  15. Kidneys are major organs to produce Calcitriol - active form of what vitamin?
    Vitamin D
  16. This system regulates renal blood flow by incr syst arterial pressure. Starts with release of renin:
    • RAAS: Renin Angiotensin Aldosterone System
    • Renin stimulates secretion of Ang II
    • Ang II stimulates secretion of aldosterone by adrenal cortex
    • Aldosterone is a potent VASOPRESSOR
  17. Hormone secreted by posterior pituitary that affects concentration of final urine output:
    ADH - Antidiuretic Hormone
  18. Two hormones secreted by posterior pituitary:
    ADH and Oxitocin
  19. Final adjustment to acid-base balance happens here:
    • Distal tubules
    • Reabsorbs Na and H20
    • Excretes K, urea, some drugs
  20. Three processes of nephrons that occur to form urine:
    • Filtration (of blood)
    • Reabsorption (of essential materials)
    • Excretion (of nonessential materials)
  21. Taking back of fluids and other substances through body tissues:
    Reabsorption (into blood)
  22. Active transport of certain chemicals from the bloodstream into the tubules:
    Secretion (from blood)
  23. These reabsorb Na, H2O, urea, K, HCO3, Ca, Phos, amino acids, uric acid:
    Proximal tubules
  24. Concentrates or dilutes the urine, reabsorbs water then Na:
    Loop of Henle
  25. Reabsorbs water as necessary; adjusts reabsorption or secretion of Na and K as necessary
    Collecting duct
  26. ADH
    • Regulates urine volume
    • Acts on distal tubule/collecting ducts
    • Increases H2O reabsorption & urine concentration
    • Secreted from posterior pituitary
    • Decreases urine output
  27. ANP - atrial natriuretic hormone
    • Secreted by muscle fibers in atria
    • Promotes loss of Na via the urine
  28. Aldosterone
    • Secreted by adrenal cortex
    • Increases Na absorption
    • Controls K secretion
    • Works with ADH to increase H2O retention
    • Depresses formation of renin
  29. Renin
    • Enzyme secreted by kidneys
    • Helps regulate Na retention
    • Initiates Ang/AngII (Ang II is vasoconstrictor)
    • RAAS regulates renal blood flow w/> syst art pres
  30. Erythropoietin
    • Hormone produced by kindeys if low arterial O2
    • Stimulates RBC production
  31. Kidneys produce Calcitriol - active form of:
    Vitamin D
  32. Calcitriol
    • Produced by kidneys
    • Stimulates intestinal Ca and Phosp absorption
    • Affects bone metabolism
    • Modulates immune system
  33. 24 hour urine specimen testing what elements:
    • Creatinine (waste product secr by muscle tiss)
    • Creatinine clearance (glomerular filtration)
    • Protein
    • Urea nitrogen (prod of protein metab.)
  34. BUN - Blood Urea Nitrogen
    • Measures nitrogenous urea in blood
    • Urea produced by protein metabolism
    • "Protein on a bun"
    • Low secretion = renal disorders, hi prot diet, excess prot metabolism
  35. Serum Creatinine
    • Nitrogenous waste from muscle metabolism of creatinine
    • Reflects glomerular filtration rate
    • Measures renal damage better than BUN
    • Only cause of >BUN = severe renal damage
  36. Elevated urine osmolality caused by:
    • SIADH secretion
    • Acidosis
    • Hypernatremia
    • HF
  37. Decreased urine osmolality caused by:
    • Diabetes insipidus
    • Hypercalcemia
    • Excess fluid intake
    • Renal tubular necrosis
    • Aldosteronism
    • Hypokalemia
    • Severe pyelonephritis
  38. Azotemia
    • Elevated nitrogenous waste products in blood
    • Increased serum urea & creatinine levels
    • Does not manifest S/S of Kidney Failure
  39. Uremia
    • Syndrome of kidney failure
    • Characterized by >BUN and >Creatinine levels
Card Set
Renal Nursing