1. language differentiation
    a major issue in simultaneous bilingualism
  2. Language differentiation factors
    • Phonology
    • Lexicon
    • Morphosyntax
    • Language environment awareness (children know when to use which language)
    • "One parent, one language" not necessary
  3. Language differentiation - Three theories
    • The fusion hypothesis
    • The differentiation with autonomous development hypothesis
    • The differentiation with interdependent development hypothesis
  4. Language differentiation - The fusion hypothesis
    Says the two languages are fused until they can differentiate around 3 yrs
  5. Language differentiation - The differentiation with autonomous development hypothesis
    Children differentiate the two languages and each develops uninfluenced by the other
  6. Language differentiation - The differentiation with interdependent development hypothesis
    Children differentiate the two languages and each language is influenced by the other
  7. code switching
    • not chaotic or random
    • a communicative resource and serves pragmatic functions
    • shaped by social norms in the families and communities and reflects cultural identity
  8. conceptual vocabulary
    • Combined language vocabulary
    • Bilingual children may have a smaller single language vocabulary but are said to have a comparable combined language vocabulary (or conceptual vocabulary)
  9. bilingual language proficiency
    • Depends on the context of use for L1 and L2
    • may lose L1 if it is not used and may become more proficient in L2
    • After 21 months normal levels of oral proficiency can be obtained
    • Generally take 5-7 years to attain proficiency levels necessary for literacy and academic achievement
    • Children's proficiency in L1 seems to predict success at learning L2
  10. ESL (sequential bilingualism): definition, stagesof development, influential factors
    • Children only hear one language for first few years and later are exposed to another language
    • Stage 1 Home language use
    • Stage 2 Nonverbal period
    • Stage 3 Telegraphic and formulaic use
    • Stage 4 Productive language use (interlanguage)
    • Language aptitude, age, motivation (instrumental-necessity, integrative-desire), personality/social style, classroom structure
  11. schooling in a second language
    • Developmental bilingual program-aims for full bilingualism, both languages are seen as important
    • Two-way immersion/bilingual program-half students from majority language and half from minority, instruction equally in both languages
    • transitional bilingual program-support in both languages, but eventual move to majority
    • second language only-sink or swim
  12. Use the two dimensions(onset and community) to categorize a dual language learner and discuss the likely language proficiency profile of this learner
    • Simultaneous vs sequential
    • minority vs majority
  13. patterns and rate of sign language development
    • Similar to that of spoken language development
    • manual babbling
    • single-sign productions
    • multiple sign combinations
    • morphological development
    • more complex syntax
    • same errors-overregularizations, pronoun reversals
    • Rate is about the same for referential signs and words
  14. the effect of hearing impairment on language learning
    • phonology differs in quantity and quality
    • literacy achievement is low
    • lexical development is delayed
    • syntax plateaus after age 10
  15. the effect of visual impairment on language learning
    • highly visible articulatory movements-more errors than sighted children
    • nonvisible articulatory movements-same errors as sighted children
    • semantics-less likely to overgeneralize words
    • fail to appropriately generalize words
    • delay in auxiliaries (helping verbs)-parents typically use direct imperatives and fewer yes/no questions
  16. chronological age, mental age, and language age in Down syndrome
    6 years chron=3 years mental=language lags behind that. 6 year old with Down syndrome will be less developed than a child chronologically 3 years old
  17. language profile in Down Syndrome
    • 1 in 800 newborns
    • Language is more impaired than other cognitive functions
    • Canonical babbling delayed by about 2 months
    • Phonological processes present in toddlers remain into adulthood
    • First word at 2 years
    • Vocab production lags behind mental age, but comprehension is on par with mental age
    • Grammatical development-delayed relative to mental age-same course as other children but it may take 12 years to do what others do in 30 months
    • Expressive language (syntax) plateaus at age 12, Stage 3 MLU 3
    • More interested in social interaction than objects than other children
  18. language profile in Williams syndrome
    • Striking contrast between severe cognitive deficits and unusual language abilities providing evidence for the dissociability of language and cognition
    • IQ range roughly the same as Down syndrome
    • Spontaneous language is grammatically complex in terms of morphology and sentence structure
    • Verbal abilities much better than visual-spatial
    • Seem to say more than they actually comprehend
  19. -autism (prevalence, triad of deficits, language andcognitive profiles) -
  20. SLI (definition,characteristics, and possible causes )
Card Set
Speech Acquisition in children Final exam review 2