1. What effects does motivation have on behaviors?
    motivated behavior is energized, directed and sustained
  2. Homeostasis
    the body's tendency to maintain an equilibrium or steady state
  3. What role does motivation play in homeostasis?
    Motivation helps to maintain homeostasis
  4. According to drive reduction theory, how does a drive develop?
    a drive is an aroused state that occurs because of a psychological need
  5. What is meant by phrase self-regulation?
    the process by which an irganism effortfully controls beavior in order to pursue important objectives
  6. What is an instinct?
    an unlearned biological pattern of behavior that is assumed to be universal throughout a species
  7. Drive reduction theory
    as a drive becomes stronger, we are motivated to reduce it
  8. How is hunger initiated and stopped?
    Hunger is initiated by the contraction of the stomach which result in hunger pangs and CCK helps start the digestion of food and then travels to the brain to signal us to stop eating
  9. How does learning influence us to eat even if we aren't hungry?
    learned associations of food with particular places and times and activities allows one to eat even though they aren't hungry
  10. Recent research on sexual patterns of behavior in the US show what?
    That motivation for sexual behavior is centered in the hypothalamus
  11. What factors are involved in determining a person's sexual orientation?
    genetic, hormonal, cognitive and environmental factors
  12. Maslow's Theory of Motivation
    theory that needs must be satisifed in order of the strength of the need. physiological needs, safety, love and belongingness, esteem, self actualization
  13. Intrinsic motivation
    based on internal factors such as organismic needs (competence, relatedness, and autonomy) as well as curiosity, challenge, and fun. we engage in these behaviors because we enjoy them
  14. Extrinsic motivation
    involves external incentives such as rewards and punishments. we engage in the behavior for some external payoff or to avoid an external punishment
  15. Research on delayed gratification indicates that the best way to resist temptation is...
    to distract yourself from whatever is tempting you for as long as possible
  16. James Lange theory of emotions
    emotion results from physiological states triggered by stimuli in the environment
  17. Cannon-Bard theory
    proposition that emotion and physiological reactions occur simultaneously
  18. Facial feedback hypothesis
    idea that facial expressions can influence emotions as well as reflect them
  19. Richard Lazarus's position on emotion regarding thought and emotion
    he believed cognitive activity preceded emotion. we appraise ourselves and those appraisals determineour emotions
  20. Valence
    refers to whether an emotion feels pleaseant or unpleasant
  21. Arousal level
    the degree to which the emotion is reflected in an individual's being active, engaged or excited versus more passive, relativly disengaged or calm
  22. When comparing a highly resilient individual to a less
    resilient individual, what might you expect regarding the experience of emotion?
    highly resilient individuals use positive emotions to bounce back from negative emotional experiences
Card Set
exam 4