A&P II Final

  1. Essential organs are gonads which include
    Testies and ovaries
  2. Sex cells are called _____ or _____ and have ____ chromosomes
    • Gametes or Haploid cells
    • 23 chromosomes
  3. Testies are devided into
  4. Within each lobule there are
    Seminiferous tubules
  5. Inside the seminiferous tubules there are special cells called
    Sertoli cells
  6. Sertoli cells produce what hormone
  7. Follicle stimulation hormone stimulates
    sperm production
  8. Outside the tubules there are interstitual cells of
  9. Seminiferous tubules deliver sperm to the
  10. A thick wall tube that transports sperm from the epididymis up to the prostate gland
    Vas deferens
  11. Vas deferens contains arteries and veins and is where a _____ is preformed
  12. Epiphyseal plates (growth plates) close because of
    testosterone at puberty
  13. Causes larger muscle, vocal changes, hair distribution, and sexual behavior
    Protein anabolism
  14. Inflammation of the epididymis
  15. Secretes alkaline viscous or think liquid
    -represents about 50% of semen
    -contains fructose which gives energy to the sperm
    -Alkaline helps neutralize the pH of the vagina
    Seminal vesicle
  16. Seminal vesicle passes through the
    prostate gland and forms the urethra
  17. secretes a watery slightly-acidic fluid with represents
    about 30 % of sperm and contains citrate which is also nutrient to sperm
    Prostate gland
  18. Prostate secretes
    PSA (Prostate Specific Antigen)
  19. PSA test for
    prostate cancer
  20. By age 50 about 2/3 of men will have
    BPH (Benign Prostate Hypotrophy or enlarged prostate)
  21. By age 70 ½ of male population will have
    prostate cancer
  22. By age _____100% of male population will have prostate cancer
    By age 80-90
  23. BPH can be caused by:
    • -Prostatic goiter
    • -Zinc deficiency
    • -Toxins in prostate
    • -Absorption of cadmium (in soda pop, plastic and polluted air)
    • -Turns into cancer because of estrogen dominance in the body (comes from red meat, beef, dairy and eggs)
    • -Decrease levels of testosterone
  24. Levels go down which means the testosterone availability goes down causing the testosterone produced by adrenal gland become more significant
    Androgen binding protein
  25. Chemical change that takes place on the head of the sperm so it can attach to the egg
    Capacitation fertilization
  26. -is the cap of the head of sperm
    -contains hydrolytic enzymes which break through the cervical mucus allowing the sperm to pass through the uterus
    -the enzyme digests the outer lining of the egg
  27. Located in the body of sperm, produce fructose and citrate
    Mitochondria of sperm
  28. Temperature for optimal sperm production is about_____ lower than normal body temperature, thus the reason for the testis outside of
    the body
    3 degrees C
  29. Billion’s of sperm are necessary for fertilization; if sperm count gets below ____it is considered a non event
    25 million per ml
  30. Positives of Circumcision/ if not circumcised
    • -Increase of penal cancer
    • -increase of UTI
  31. Negatives of Circumcision
    • -Painful
    • -Urethra injury
    • -Occasionally could cause infection
    • -Individuals who have had it later in live decreases sexual pleasure
  32. Condition where fore skin is so tight over the head of the penis it can’t retract
  33. Trimming of prostate to create space for urination in
    Transurethral resection
  34. low production of sperm
  35. Oligospermia caused by several different things
    • -Malnutrition
    • -Bad fever
    • -Infection
  36. undescended testes, one or both testicles fail to move into the scrotum before birth
  37. Accumulation of fluid in the scrotum
  38. Most coming in males between 20-35 years old
    Testicular cancer
  39. Very slow growing; doesn’t readily metastasize unless
    biopsy done
    Prostate cancer
  40. Two tests for Prostate cancer:
    • 1. PSA or palpate
    • 2. Feel prostate gland for lumps and bumps
  41. Erectile Dysfunction impotence could be caused by:
    • -removal of prostate
    • -arteriosclerosis (clogged arteries)
    • -tumor
    • -radiation
    • -diabetes
    • -alcoholism
    • -emotional issues
    • -medications
  42. Female reproduction gonads are referred to as
    the ovaries
  43. Gametes of female reproductive system
  44. Space between the vagina and the anus
  45. Clip of the perineum: episiotomy (tears during pregnancy)
    episiotomy (tears during pregnancy)
  46. fetus develops anywhere besides the uterus
    Ectopic pregnancy
  47. Ovaries house immature eggs
  48. A mature egg
  49. Process of releasing the egg/ovum goes
  50. Ovum is coated with ______ that help the egg move into the fallopian tube
    follicular cells
  51. Hormones secreted by ovaries
    Estrogen and progesterone
  52. Lining of uterus
  53. Is a massive supply of blood capillaries
  54. Within the uterus there are glands that secrete mucus and the mucus
    changes consistency during monthly cycle

    • -Mucus acts as a barrier to the sperm, but at ovulation the cervical mucus changes and becomes more slippery
    • -allowing sperm to pass through and enter the fallopian tube
  55. Egg gets fertilized then the offspring is going to implant in the
    endometrial lining
  56. Uterine milk produces by glands which makes the
  57. If implantation doesn’t take place then the endometrial lining sheds off during
  58. Stimulates growth of mammary glands during pregnancy
  59. stimulates secreting cells which secrete milk
  60. Change from light pink to brown in early stages of pregnancy
  61. Breastfeeding positives:
    • -antibodies
    • -milk rich in protein, fat-calcium-vitamins-emotional bonding-helps uterus contract -bonding between mother and child
  62. Ovum has to be fertilized within
    24 hrs after ovulation
  63. Sperm can last
    48 hrs
  64. Stimulates the alveoli (in the breast) to release milk
  65. Causes contracts and stimulates alveoli to eject milk
  66. average is getting down to 11-12 years old because of the hormones
    Menses/Menarche or menstruation
  67. End of menses or period
  68. Painful menstruation (sometimes caused from lack of nutrition)
  69. Painful urination
  70. Lack of menses or period (normal after pregnancy, birth control and well trained athletes)
  71. Bleeding or spotting in between menstruation and could be structural or hormonal
    Dysfunctional Urinal Bleeding (DUB)
  72. Functioning or active endometrial tissue (lots of capillaries) outside the uterus
  73. Major cause of infertility and effects about 1 million women in the US
    PID/Pelvic inflammatory disease
  74. Inflammatory of the fallopian tube
  75. Usually woman over 40 years old, history of miscarriages, endometriosis and few or no children
    Ovarian cancer
  76. More prevalent in women who are obese, infertile
    or prolonged use of estrogen usually occurs in women between ages of 30-50 years old
    Uterine cancer
  77. Caused by estrogen dominance
    Breast cancer
  78. Period of time it takes from fertilization to birth
  79. Hormone that makes birthing possible produced to react with tendon and ligaments
  80. Placenta in the way of birthing canal
    Placenta privia
  81. the nutrients that we consume a lot of including: carbs, fats, water & protein
    Macro nutrients
  82. vitamins, minerals (or trace minerals)
    Micro nutrients
  83. Minerals that we take or need more of including:
    calcium, magnesium, sodium, chloride, potassium
    and phosphorus
    Macro minerals
  84. are important components of coenzymes and coenzymes are important to activate enzymes.
  85. are the catalyses of life, make all the chemistry in our body happen
  86. One enzyme can react with______different molecules per min.
    100 thousand
  87. are necessary for your health, but you only need a small amount
    Trace minerals
  88. (Types of what?) iron, zinc, iodine, cobalt---needed to make B12, chromium, vanadium---lack of these two can lead to type 2 diabetes and lithium
    Trace mineral
  89. not only in the blood, but in every cell of your body (including cytochromes)
  90. are also components that activate co-enzymes
    Vitamins & Minerals
  91. Vitamin B & C (hard to over dose on water soluble vitamins)
    Vitamins that are water soluble
  92. Vitamin A,D, E & K
    Fat soluble vitamins
  93. vitamin that is good for eyes
    Vitamin A
  94. Deficiency in Vitamin C
  95. Deficiency in what vitamint could cause Ricketts and calcium absorption
    Vitamin D
  96. Vitamin E
  97. ACE
    Know as antioxidant vitamins
  98. Neutralize free radicals which means less damage to the cell
  99. End of DNA that is known as the:
  100. We get fiber from
    • -those things we don’t digest
    • -fruits and veggies
  101. enough energy to heat 1 g of water to 1 degree C
    (Regular) Calories
  102. 8 killa Calories create
  103. BMR
    Baso metabolic rate
  104. To measured BMR a person must be awake, resting and measured by
    How many killa calories you burn pure hour sitting and resting
  105. _____ killa calories to one regular calorie
  106. all labels are written in
    killa calories
  107. ______ diets bad because brain is mostly fat and cholesterol molecules, by cutting fat out of
    diets we are starving the materials needed for brain
    No fat diets
  108. _____ fats olestra, in potato chips (gave headaches)
  109. What we need fats for:
    • -60% of Brain is fat
    • -Sex hormones
    • -Phospholipid bilayer
    • -Ability to burn fat decreases
  110. Causes inflammatory reaction leading to plaque
    trans fat
  111. are liquid at room temperature, easier to digest (contains a double bond)
    Unsaturated oils
  112. Force hydrogen to attach and break the double bond
    Partially Hydrogenated
  113. If you are not getting the right amount of good fats could cause:
    • -Growth retardation
    • -Reproductive failure
    • -Visual problems
  114. Bind to cell receptor cites that will increase metabolism
    Good fats
  115. High protein and fat intake (Atkins diet)
    • Lack fiber, vitamins, minerals, and phytochemicals like antioxidants, glucose (needed in the brain) -Body will burn protein, but it also burns up muscle or consumes muscle because it doesn’t have the glycogen stored
    • -Higher risk of heart attack, blood pressure, high c
    • holesterol, and colon cancer
  116. causes body to burn fat
    HcG hormone
  117. Problems from HcG diet
    Lack of nutrition, vitamins and minerals, protein deficiency and heart attack (mostly in men)
  118. _____ burn most calories
  119. Where do we get our body temperature of 98.6
    Muscle cells becuase they produce heat
  120. Producing glucose out of fat and muscle cells
  121. Weight loss principles include 3 things:
    • 1. Burn more calories than you take in
    • 2. Body needs to be more towards alkaline state than acidic
    • 3. Stress: kicks up a hormone cortisole, which causes progesterone levels down and estrogen up
    • and causes estrogen dominance. Estrogen dominance causes hypothyroidism and makes the metabolism slow down—causes insulin resistance, which causes the deactivation of growth hormone and testosterone
  122. tell body that they are starving and slows down metabolism
  123. Zoda, coffee, black tea, fried foods, sugar, white stuff (flour, cocaine etc.) and high protein diets ar all ______
    Acidic foods
  124. most vegetables, citrus—lemon digested, alfalfa & grasses are _______
    Alkaline foods
  125. -Dying microbes make us more _______ which makes us fat because it slows down metabolism
  126. Microbs that are the worse for us
  127. cause weight gain because our body doesn't know how to break it down
  128. When heated above 85 degrees turn into formaldehyde
  129. Need a healthy _____ to lose weight
  130. Pop belly, bloating, indigestion, high blood pressure, coated tongue, not a morning person wake-up
    restless, skin issues such as: eczema, brown spots also little red dots on the torso, white nail bed spots, Acid reflux etc.
    Signs of struggling liver
  131. Things to help liver:
    • -No alcohol
    • -Few drugs as possible
    • -Foods that are helpful: cruciferous
    • veggies-broccoli, cauliflower, brussel sprouts and Swedish bitters
  132. Large midsection, thin arms & legs, cravings for cheese, chocolate, salt and swollen ankles at night, fatigue, dark circles around the eyes, anxiety, nervousness, insomnia, depression, white discolored skin patches, not morning people
    Adrenal Fatigue
  133. Stresses of Adrenal gland
    Mental stresses, lack of sleep, pain, over exercising,
  134. Fatigue, weight gain, weakness, sleepiness, dry skin, hair loss, cold intolerance (chills), outer eyebrow thinning, sagging eyelids, lower body temperature, nails have vertical lines, cold hands and feet
    Thyroid symptoms
  135. Chlorine, fluoride and estrogen lowers
    function of thyroid
  136. Organic foods, get pesticides off of veggies and
    fruits because it can mimic estrogen, tyrosine and cruciferous veggies
    Things to strengthen thyroid
  137. saddle bag appearance (heavy in the hips),
    cycle symptoms, exposure to pesticides and herbicides & PMS
    Eggs/ovarian malfunction
  138. 6 Fat buring hormones
    • 1. Growth hormone
    • 2. IGF
    • 3. Glucagon
    • 4. Adrenaline/epinepherine
    • 5. T3, T4
    • 6. Testosterone
  139. Causes liver to release IGF
    Growth Hormone
  140. causes muscle growth and retention and fat burning
  141. Helps break down glycogen
  142. main hormone that releases fat from the fat cells
  143. Increase the size and number of mitochondria
    in cells to increase metabolism
    T3, T4
  144. Promotes muscle development and fat loss
  145. 3 Fat storing hormones that the body produces
    • 1. Cortisole
    • 2. Insulin
    • 3. Estrogen
  146. helps break down glycogen and releases glucose for instant energy (causes a spike in insulin)
  147. can’t burn fat when _____ is present in quantity or if it spikes
  148. Causes fat deposition
  149. 12 principles of fat burning
    • 1. Can't burn fat in presence of insulin
    • 2. Exercise inhibits insulin works well with adrenal
    • 3. Avoid alcohols and stimulators/caffeine
    • 4. Avoid acid producing foods
    • 5. Don't skip meals
    • 6. Eat good fats
    • 7. Avoid excess salt
    • 8. Eat lots of veggies
    • 9. Protein source -- veggies
    • 10. Avoid stress
    • 11. Alkalizing
    • 12. Sleep
  150. -starving themselves, not successful because not getting nutrients
    -95% are women between the ages of 12-25 years old
    Anorexia nervosa
  151. eating and then purging, spike insulin
  152. Good body mass index:
    • Males: 16%-20%
    • Females: 20%-24%
  153. _____ are very efficient at holding onto the water and
    electrolytes if we are dehydrated
  154. body has eliminated a significant amount of water and less sodium due to not drinking enough water and replacing electrolytes
    True dehydration
  155. too much plasma sodium caused by to much intravenous saline
  156. person who loses high volume of sodium through
    sweat and just drinking plain water
  157. is most abundant in the intracellular fluid
  158. higher than normal levels of potassium in the blood, hemolytic anemia, this can eventually cause cardiac arrest (vets give animal a shot of potassium to put
    them down)
    renal failure and acidosis
  159. heavy perspiration and could result from chronic vomiting and diarrhea. Symptoms: muscle weakness
  160. _____affects the pH of extracellular cellular fluid
  161. Hyperparathyroidism or hypothyroid, can cause
    cardiac arrhythmia and muscle weakness. Need calcium for bone strengthening and activates muscle contraction and relaxation, bone, activates neurotransmitters and important in blood clotting.
  162. Caused by vitamin d deficiency, hyporparathyroidism or hyperthyroidism, pregnancy and lactation can cause this. Will cause muscle cramping, tetany (muscles locked) or even death
  163. Are generally abundant in the ICF (intercellular fluid), cells bodies have phosphate in it because of the
    phospholipid bilayer. Very important part of energy molecules and bone matrix
Card Set
A&P II Final
A&P II Final