- Each instance of inconsistent information changes the stereotype
- Single instance=small change
- Accumulation=large change
- Large numbers of inconsistent information change a stereotype.
- Prediction: The greater the amount of inconsistent information, the more a stereotype changes.
- Highly salient instances of inconsistent information change a stereotype.
- Prediction: Inconcsistent information that is concentrated ina few individuals leads to more stereotype change.
- Typical instances of inconsistent information change a steretype.
- Rare instances of inconcsistent information lead to subtypes.
- Prediction: Inconsistent information that is dispersed across many individuals leads to more stereotype change.
Stereotype Change Study
- Purpose: Tested the three models of stereotype change.
- Procedure: Given info about lawyers, rated each lawyer on stereotypic traits.
- Manipulations: Amount-small: 6 inconsistent traits, large: 30 inconsistent traits Pattern: Dispersed, concentrated
- Predictions: More stereotype change when inconsistent information is large (bookkeeping), concentrated (conversion), dispersed (subtyping).
- Subtyping and bookkeeping models were supported. The conversion model is never supported.
- Subtyping Model: Subtypes maintain stereotypes
- Cognitive Biases: Better recall of stereotype-consistent information, confirmation bias
- Procedures: Video (librarian vs. waitress), Attributes did and did not match the stereotype, Recalled target's attributes
- Easier to recall the consistent information.
- Study done to test Stereotype Maintenance.
False beliefs that lead to their own fulfillment
Three steps to a Self-Fulfilling Prophecy
- 1. Perceiver holds false belief about target.
- 2. Perceiver treats target in manner concsistent with false belief.
- 3. Target responds to this treatment in such a way as to confirm the originally false belief.
Search for information that confirms one's beliefs.
When a perceiver believes that a false belief has come true, when in fact it has not.
When a perceiver correctly predicts a target's future behavior, but did not cause that behavior to occur.
Introverted-Extroverted Studies testing confirmation biases
- Participants were given a set of questions to pick from to ask another participant. They were told if the person was introverted or extroverted.
- Results: Participants asked questions that elicited confirming behavior from partner.
- Purpose: Examine whether the attractiveness stereotype is self-fulfilling.
- Participants: Men: perceivers, Women: targets (paired off and never saw each other)
- Procedure: Interactons w/o nonverbal behavior, biographical questionnaire for partner, photo of male, male got photo of his female partner, male rated his partner on traits, conversed over telephone (tape made), male rated his partner again
- Manipulation: Attractive vs. unattractive partner
- Judges listened to conversation, rated male's and female's behavior.
- Results: Males judged warmer and nicer in attractive condition. Females judged warmer and friendlier in attractive condition.
- The men were very warm and nice to the "beautiful" women, the "beautiful women responded in kind.
Three stigma classifcations by Goffman
- 1. Tribal identities: social groups into which individuals are born (religious, ethnic, racial, national)
- 2. Abominations of the body: physical ailments (deformities, illnesses, paralysis)
- 3. Blemishes of individual character: moral transgressions, weakness of will (drug addiction, prostitution, homosexuality, mental illnesses)
Consensual beliefs about undesirable attributes or characteristics.
6 stigma characteristics
- 1. Concealability: Extent to which a stigma can be hidden from others.
- 2. Stability: Extent to which a stigma can change over time.
- 3. Disruptiveness: Extent to which a stigma disrupts social interactions.
- 4. Aesthetic Qualities: Extent to which a stigma is physically unappealing to others.
- 5. Responsibility: Extent to which a stigmatized person is seen as personally responsible for their stigma.
- 6. Danger (Peril): Extent to which a stigmatized person is seen as dangerous.
Social Idenity functions of stigmas
- People categorize others into in/out groups
- Categorization creates a social identity
- People want to be in groups held in high esteem
- People sustain positive identity by derogating out-groups
Self-enhancement functions of stigmas
- Stigmatizing out-groups make people feel better about themselves.
- (Based on downward comparison theory)
- 254 AA children
- Presented with 4 dolls: 2 brown with black hair, 2 white with yellow hair
- Children asked to identify color of doll, racial identity of doll, identify child's racial identity (not as good at this), identify racial preference
- Children devalued own racial identity
System Justification functions of stigmas
- Through system justification people:
- 1. Come to believe that they deserve their privilege
- 2. The system under which their culture operates is fair
- 3. Perception of fairness reduces intergroup conflict
- Cannot explain social revolutions that initially heighten intergroup conflict
Terror Management functions of stigmas
- People are aware of their own mortality
- This awareness creates anxiety
- People protect self from this anxiety by subscribing to a cultural view that provides order and meaning to an otherwise random world.
- Stigmatization serves to reject those who are different and who violate and challenge cultural views.
Components of prejudice
- Stereotypic beliefs: typical attributes
- Symbolic beliefs: values, traditions, customs
- Emotions: affective reactions (e.g. disgust)
Old Fashioned Racism
Premise: People are consciously aware they are racist, but may conceal that from others.
Modern (Symbolic) Racism
- Premise: People feel ambivalent toward the stigmatized-torn between the egalitarian values they truly hold and the racism they harbor.
- Theory proposes that: People deal with their ambivalence by letting it come out in disguised form- as support for conservative American values.
Bogus Pipeline Study
- Experimenter claims to have access (a pipeline) to participant's true reactions
- Participants seated in front of machine with steering wheel
- Completed a survey about self rated AA on traits by turning wheel (-3 to +3)
- Manipulation: Bogus pipeline group or control
- If people lie on self-report measures to appear unbiased then negative: bogus pipeline>control positive: control>bogus pipeline
Explicit Measures of Prejudice
- Responses more easily modified
- More vulnerable to social desirability
IAT: Implicit Association Test
- measures reaction time:
- how quickly people categorize stimulus words
- Faster RT=stronger association
Taxonomy of prejudice measures
Controlling responses ranges from easy to difficult. Easy being old fashioned racism and difficult being physiological responses.
Mayor's Race Study
- Examined whether racial prejudice stems from:
- competition over scarce resources (realistic group conflict theory)
- belief that AA viloate cherished values (symbolic/modern racism)
- Mayoral elections in Los Angeles: 1969 and 1973
- Election Results:
- 1969: Yorty won with 53%
- 1973: Bradley won with 56%
- Scarce Resources Prediction: If racial prejudice stems from competition over scarce resources, then...Whites who are in greater competition for resources with AA's should be more prejudiced than those who are in less competition.
- Symbolic Racism Prediction: If racial prejudice stems from symbolic racism, then....The more strongly Whites believe the AAs violate traditional values, the more prejudice they will show.
- Competition over scarce resources: Measured via questionnaire responses spanning four domains of racial threat
- Symbolic Racism: Measured via questionnaire responses spanning two domains of value systems.
- Results: Only symbolic racism significantly explained voting behavior, competition didn't matter. Symbolic (modern) racism disguised as endorsement of conservative values. Enables symbolic racists to believe they are non-prejudiced, while still supporting political positions that favor White over AAs
Domains of Racial Threat
- 1. Interracial social contact
- 2. Economic competition
- 3. Racial Busing
- 4. Perception of violence committed by AAs
Domains of Value Systems
- 1. Expressive Racism- how much they believed AA viloated protestant work ethic
- 2. Opposition to racial busing- how much they opposed racial bussing to inegrate schools
- Differs from symbolic/modern racism in 3 ways:
- 1. They believe racism is more wrong.
- 2. Their prejudice comes out in subtle ways-not as support for conservative values.
- 3. More aware of their racism.
Denial of Prejudice Study
- Purpose: Examined denial of prejudice against AAs and obese
- Used Modern Racism Scale and Dislike scale
- More people disavowed have prejudice against AA so AA have a greater protected status.
- Purpose: Examine willingess to derogate various stigmatized groups
- Participants indicated: How comfortable they personally feel saying or thinking bad things about 41 different groups
- Results: Willingness to derogate varied across the stigmas, Most comfortable: homosexuals, prostitutes, child abusers Least Comfortable: cancer patients, people with leukemia, paralyzed people
- People are ambivalent toward the stigmatized.
- (Aversion and hostility, sympathy and compassion)
- Proposes that:
- 1. Ambivalence causes threat to self-esteem. (No matter how one feels, that feeling is in conflict with the other way one feels)
- 2. People try to reduce threats to self-esteem. (They justify or deny the way the feel at the moment, depending on the situation)
- 3. Behavior toward the stigmatized is very unstable.
- 4. People ar ware of their ambivalence
Justify Prejudice Study
- Prediction: People will justify prejudice against a stigmatized other if the situation encourages that response.
- 1. Male participants rated confederate on 20 item impression questionnaire
- 2. Participant administered shock to confederate as feedback
- 3. Participant evaluated confederate 2nd time on impression questionnaire
- 1. confederates race: AA or white
- 2. Shock level: strong and painful or weak and not painful
- Prediction: People justify prejudice by denigrating stigmatized others who they have harmed. this makes those people seem unworthy and deserving of the harm.
- Results: As predicted, impression of AA becomes more negative after strong shock.
Deny Prejudice Study
- Prediction: People will deny prejudice against a stigmatized other if the situation encourages that response.
- 1. Participant introduced to confederate.
- 2. Participant required to insult confederate.
- 3. Told confederate left before criticism was explained as part of the experiment.
- 4. Participant believed experiment was over.
- 5. Sent to office for $, wher got letter from confederate.
- Doing an independent study project and needed one more participant, study was on repetition, experimental materials attached
- 1. Confederate race: AA or white
- 2. Insult level: Very hurtful or not very hurtful
- Prediction: People will deny prejudice by going out of their way to help a stigmatized other whom they have harmed.
- Results: As predicted, participants wrote the sentence more often after having harmed the AA target.
- Stigmatized groups are aware of negative stereotypes this awareness produces, stereotype threat
- Fear that one will be viewed or treated in way consistent with stereotype, or that one will confirm the stereotype
- Stereotype threat is situationally induced
Arises when target realizes that negative stereotype can explain their behavior or attributes