Chapter 7 Exam 3 Review

  1. What is passive transport? (4)
    • 1. No ATP is required.
    • 2. Diffusion: movement of a substance from higher concentration to low concentration.
    • 3. Osmosis: diffusion of water accross a selectively permeable membrane.
    • 4. Facilitated diffusion: moves with concentration gradient, no energy required, specialized membrane proteins required. Example: human insulin.
  2. Osmosis: (3)
    • 1. Diffusion (movement from high to low concentration) of WATER across a selectively permeable membrane.
    • 2. No ATP is required.
    • 3. Isotonic solution, hypotonic solution, and hypertonic solution.
  3. When using the different osmosis terms what are you talking about and referring to?
    Talking about the external environment and referring to the solute.
  4. Isotonic solution:(2)
    • 1. The water does not move or moves equally in the cell and out of the cell(equal amounts at the same time).
    • 2. Equal concentration of water and solutes inside and outside of the cell.
  5. Hypotonic solution:(2)
    • 1. Water moves into the inside of the cell.
    • 2. Less solute, higher water outside of the cell.
  6. Hypertonic solution:(3)
    • 1. Water leaves the cell.
    • 2. Higher solute, lower water on the outside of the cell.
  7. What is active transport?(3)
    • 1. Movement of substances AGAINST concentration gradient or movement faster than diffusion alone (low to high)
    • 2. Requires energy ATP and specific membrane proteins.
    • 3. One type of active transport-- endocytosis.
  8. Endocytosis...(4)
    • 1. A type of active transport
    • 2. Requires energy ATP and specific membrane proteins.
    • 3. Movement of substances from outside to inside by engulfment and formation of vacuoles Phagocytosis and pinocytosis.
    • 4. Also called Bulk Transport.
  9. Phagocytosis:(1)
    1. Movement of SOLID MATERIALS from outside to inside by engulfment and formation of vacuoles.
  10. Pinocytosis:(1)
    Movement of LIQUIDS from outside to inside by engulfment and formation of vacuoles.
  11. What are the two main environmental factors that influence microbes?
    • 1. Temperature
    • 2. Gas requirements
  12. What are cardinal temperatures?(2)
    • 1. The temperature important for growth of organisms.
    • 2. Maximum, Minimum and Optimum
  13. Four temperature lovers.
    • 1. Psychrophiles--"Cold Lover" Example: found on mountain tops, Arctic, deep ocean.
    • 2. Facultative psychrophiles--not normally psychrophiles they are mesophiles that can also grow in the cold. Example: Refrigator (S. aureus)
    • 3. Mesophiles-- "Middles Lover" Example: human pathogens
    • 4. Thermophiles--"Heat Lover" Example: hot springs, volcanic areas, valcanic ocean vents.
  14. What temp. are most human pathogens?
    Mesophiles-"Middle Lover"
  15. Two oxygen requirements.
    • 1. Aerobes: use oxygen and can detoxify it.
    • 2. Anaerobes: "without air"- can't use oxygen in respiration
  16. Three different kinds of anaerobes.
    • 1. Facultative anaerobes: can grow without oxygen, but can detoxify oxygen. Example: E. coli-lives in large intestine.
    • 2. Strict anaerobes: can't use oxygen, can't detoxify oxygen.
    • 3. Aerotolerant anaerobes: can't use oxygen, can detoxify oxygen. (can live with or without oxygen, but can't use them.)
  17. What is symbiosis?(2)
    • 1. An ecological associations
    • 2. "live together"- Two organisms live in close association, required for survival for one or both.
  18. What are the three symbiotic relationships?
    • 1. Mutualism-both organims benefit
    • 2. Commensalism- one benefits, other is not harmed.
    • 3. Parasitism- one benefits, one is harmed
Card Set
Chapter 7 Exam 3 Review
Chapter 7 exam 3 review