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  1. All living things are composed of four classes of large biological molecules:
    Nucleic Acids, Proteins, Lipids, Carbohydrates
  2. Macromolecules
    large molecules composed of thousands of covalently connected atom
  3. True or False? Molecular function and structure are inseparable
  4. Define Polymer
    a long molecule consisting of many similar building block
  5. Monomer
    The small building blocks of polymer
  6. Are Lipids classified as a class of Organic molecules? Explain your answer
    No, lipids are not organic molecule. Even though lipids consist of hydrocarbons, they do not build up to make polymers. (Being able to form polymers is a major characteristic of Organic molecules)
  7. Dehydration Reaction
    occurs when two monomers bond together through the loss of a water molecule resulting in the synthesis of a polymer
  8. hydrolysis
    a reaction that is essentially the reverse of the dehydration reaction, resulting in the breaking down of a polymer
  9. What are the simplest carbohydrates? what are the name of its polymers
    Monosacchrides. Polysacchrides
  10. Monosaccharides have molecular formulas that are usually multiples of?
  11. What is the molecular formula of Glucose
    C6H12O6 (remember the simple molecular formula CH2O?)
  12. Monosacchrides are classified by :
    • 1. The location of the carbonyl group (as aldose or ketose)
    • 2.The number of carbons in the carbon skeleton
  13. What is the simplest form of starch?
  14. formed when a dehydration reaction joins two monosaccharide
  15. Covalent bond between two or more monosacchrides/polysacchrides
    glycosidic linkage
  16. a storage polysaccharide of plants, consists entirely of glucose monomer
  17. Humans and other vertebrates store _______ mainly in liver and muscle cells
  18. a major component of the tough wall of plant cell
  19. Both cellulose and starch are polymers of glucose but what makes the two differ?
    The glycosidic linkage/ring forms: Starch is linked by alpha and cellulose is linked by beta
  20. In straight structures, H atoms on one strand can bond with ______ groups on other strands
  21. Polymers with alpha glucose are_____? Polymers with beta glucose are _____?
    helical. straight
  22. If a hypothetical enzyme can break down alpha bonds can it break beta bonds too?
  23. From the previous card: Enzymes that are synthesized by the most autotrophs are only capable of breaking down alpha bonds so how are cows capble of hydrolyze cellulose?
    Some microtubes, that live in the cow's intestine, have enzymes that can hydrolyze cellulose; this is also called a symbiotic relationship
  24. Chitin
    polysaccharide that is found in the exoskeleton of arthropods. Chitin also provides structural support for the cell walls of many fungi
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