Human Diversity

  1. Why should conversations about prejudice and discrimination by undertaken?
    • Prejudice and discrimination spread by not having respectful dialogue
    • Discussing the issues eliminates alienation between people
  2. Within families and communities narratives about "other" groups:
    • Spread storeis about how things came to be and what is significant (myths become truths)
    • Belief systems lead to discrimination
  3. How can narratives about "other" groups surface in a work environment?
    • Policies
    • Hiring and retention practices
    • Interpersonal relationships
    • Organizational power
  4. There are potential areas of conflict when inidividuals of different cultures interact, including:
    • Language
    • Norms, values
    • Identity, sense of self
    • Space, organizatoin
    • Directness, discloure
    • Non-verbal communication
    • Dress
    • Concept of time
    • Social behaviors
    • Work Habits
    • Value of work
    • Management, negotiation styles
  5. Ethnocentrism in Behavior contributes to conflict
    By believing that your perspective is "correct," preferable, and superior.
  6. What is "ethnocentric syndrome?"
    Behavioral tendencies manifested when interacting with individuals considered to be out of group.
  7. The Characteristics of ethnocentric syndrome include:
    • In-group pride
    • Judgement
    • Lck of empathy
    • Stereotyping
    • Exaggeration of "bad" characteristics
    • Ignoring history
    • Mistrust
    • Fear
    • Ignoring individualism
    • Scapegoating
  8. Self-awareness is important because:
    It can keep one's perceptual, cognitive, and behavioral processes from detrimentally affecting inter-group relations.
  9. In cross-cultural cousneling literature some of the aformentioned issues surface in terms of the effects of projection, transference, counter-transference , resistance and defensive reactions. Let us look at each of the effects and then move on to looking at some skill areas to deal with cross-cultural issues.
  10. Projection Involves
    Attributing to others the characteristics that are in fact derived from our own assumptions.
  11. Transference
    A concept used in a therapeutic realtionship response to an individual based on patterns of relationships in the past.
  12. Counter-Transference occurs when
    A helping professional responds to a client based upon patterns of previous experience with individuals of similar background.
  13. Resistance may be:
    A form of misinterpretation of cultural difference.
  14. Defense Mechanisms
    Psychological reactions designed to maintain psychological stability and integration in the face of stress. Subordinate populations use a variety of defense mechanisms to buffer the stress of relationships with the dominant group.
  15. Subjective
    Meaning systems often unrecognized by those in the culture
  16. Objective
    Patterned behaviors and habits
  17. The levels of interaction for culture include:
    • Micro
    • Meso
    • Exo
    • Macro
  18. Micro
    Individual to individual
  19. Meso
    Social group
  20. Exo
    • Institutional
    • Organzational
  21. Macro
    • Country
    • State
    • City
  22. Personal Cutlure plays into the dynamic of culture being multileveled
    • Personal identity (each is complex)
    • Reactions are influenced by previous experiences and interpretations (at all levels)
  23. Personal Language Barriers to Relationship
    • Language
    • Stereotypes
    • Discrimination
    • Judgment
    • Stress
  24. Language
    verbal and nonverbal
  25. Stereotypes
    • Some are positive but generally most are negative
    • Has some plausible fact
  26. Discrimination
    • Disenfrachised
    • Big issue
  27. Judgment
    • Conscious
    • Subconscious
    • Easy to judge what is unfamiliar or different
  28. Stress
    Creates potential complications
  29. Organizational/Institutional Barriers
    • Policy, Procedures, Programs
    • Gender Issues
    • -Difference in pay, promotions
    • -Gender specific careers/tasks
  30. ** Assumptions of U.S. National Culture about Diversity
    • The U.S. is a mertiocracy
    • Americans do not have a culture
    • If it is different, it is wrong
    • Do not talk about diversity
    • Do not admit prejudice
  31. The U.S. is a mertiocracy
    • Tend to presume equal opportunity is given
    • Blame the worker for not working hard enough
  32. Americans do not have a culture:
    Believe we are individuals (part of our culture, is believing that we don't have culture)
  33. If it is different, it is wrong
    • Against change
    • Going against our heritage
  34. Do not talk about diversity:
    We thinks its been resolved
  35. Do not admit prejudices
    We tend to tink that we don't prejudge anyone
  36. 14 Personal Directives
    • Be nonjudgmental
    • Be flexible
    • Be resourceful
    • Personalize observations
    • Pay attention to thoughts and feelings
    • Listen attentively
    • Observe carefully
    • Assume complexity
    • Tolerate the stress of uncertainity
    • Have patience
    • Manage personal habits
    • Keep a sense of humor
    • Show respect
    • Show empathy
  37. Be nonjudgmental
    • No prejudgement
    • Ask and get answers you need
    • Be aware of your thoughts
  38. Be flexible
    • Adjust and readjust as necessary
    • Change when necessary
  39. Be resourceful
    • Get the info and resources they need in order to perserve for others
    • Always find out more info
  40. Personalize Observations
    • learn "I" messages
    • Don't use "blaming" language
    • Own your own perspections; be able to spearate
    • Other people have different perspectives
    • Yours are not the standard
  41. Pay attention to thoughts and feelings
    • Your own
    • Other people's
    • What makes you uncomfortable
    • Use your intuition
  42. Listen Attentively/Observe Carefully
    • Listen more than talking
    • Active listening, question
  43. *Assume complexity (easily overlooked)
    People are complex
  44. Tolerate the stress of uncertainty
    • Try to avoid being irritated by different
    • Uncertainty is okay
    • Sometimes uncertainty is silence
    • Be okay with not knowing everything
  45. Have Patience
    • Practice being calm
    • Can be good stress
  46. Manage Personal Habits
    • Know what they are
    • Develop diplomacy
    • Personal habits can be misinterpreted
  47. Keep a Sense of Humor
    • Be able to laugh about yourself
    • Don't take yourself so seriously
  48. Show Respect
    Be guinine
  49. Show Empathy
    • Think about the other person's perspective
    • Give respect, get respect
    • Be kind
  50. Using the personal directives, how can the dialogue process by started?
    • Premise that each person will focus on listening and learning the other's viewpoint
    • Acknowledge desire to understand, resolve
    • All parties are involved
    • Everyone is allowed full expression of thoughts and feelings
    • Environment must be safe for exchange to take place
  51. What should be done to recover if (and when) conflict occurs?
    • Acknowledge issue
    • Discuss options
    • If necessary get a mediator
    • Re-establish trust
    • Be active to address problems
  52. How can you foster lifelong competency skills?
    • Focus on self-awareness
    • Accept differences
    • Learn about culture(s)
    • Foster relationships
    • Take opportunities
    • Work on skills
Card Set
Human Diversity