Psychology Test #3 - Module 2

  1. Define Intelligence
    a person’s capacity to understand the world, think rationally, and use resources effectively.
  2. Define General Intelligence.
    if you do well in one area you have a tendency to do well in otherareas
  3. Define Multiple Intelligences.
    states that people can have great ability in onearea more than in other areas – that there isn’t some common factor that underlies differentabilities as in the general intelligence perspective.
  4. Define fluid intelligence.
    ability to reason quickly and abstractly (declines w/age)
  5. Define crystallized inteligence
    knowledge that accumulates, verbal abilities (stable orincreases w/age)
  6. Define Analytical Intelligence
    focuses on the mental components involved in analyzing information to solveproblems
  7. Define creative intelligence
    focuses on ability to adapt to novel experiences and the ability of formulatenew ideas
  8. Define practical intelligence.
    takes into account how successful people are in facing demands of their every day environment
  9. Define Standarization
    provides a basis for comparing test scores. Get scores from a representative sample of test takers and this becomes the standard to whichother scores are compared.
  10. Define Reliability
    test yields consistent results
  11. Define Validity
    when a test measures exactly what it is supposed to measure
  12. Define infant-directed speech
    adults speaking slowly and with exaggerated changes in pitch and loudness that attracts infants more than adult like speech
  13. Define Intonation
    the rise and fall in pitch begins to appear in the babbling – forming two distinct sentence type patterns
  14. Define Declarative (in regards to intonation)
    pitch first rises and then falls toward end of sentence
  15. Define Question (in regards to intonation)
    pitch is level and then rises toward the end of sentence
  16. Define Over-Generalize
    apply rules even when the application results in an error
  17. Define syntax
    grammatical rules that indicate how words and phrases can be combined to form sentences
  18. Define cognation
    The mental activity that is associated with thinking,knowing, and remembering information
  19. Define concepts
    Mental Groupings
  20. Define Hierachies
    Organizing thoughts into categories.
  21. Define prototypes
    A practical use of a concept.
  22. Define Arrangement
    requires a group of elements be rearranged or recombined in a way that will satisfy a certain objective.
  23. Define inducing structure
    identifying the relationship that exists among elements which can lead to a solution
  24. Define Transformation
    consists of an initial state, a goal state, and then a series of methods for changing the initial state into the goal state
  25. Define Algorithm
    a rule which if followed exactly guarantees a correct solution
  26. Define Heuistic
    more simplistic, but more error-prone method
  27. Define Insight
    a sudden awareness of the solution
  28. Define Confirmation Bias
    A tendency to search for information that confirms one’s preconceptions.
  29. Define fixation
    The inability to see a problem from a new perspective; an impediment to problem solving.
  30. Define Functional Fixedness
    The tendency to think of things only in terms of their usual functions; an impediment to problem solving.
  31. Define Representativeness Heuristic
    Judging the likelihood of things in terms of how well they seem to represent, or match, particular prototypes; many lead one to ignore other relevant information
  32. Define Availability Heuristic
    Estimating the likelihood of events based on their availability in memory; if instances come readily to mind, we presume such events are possible.
  33. Define Overconfidence
    The tendency to be more confident than correct – to overestimate the accuracy of one’s beliefs and judgments.
  34. Define Framing
    The way an issue is posed; how an issue is framed can significantly affect decisions and judgments.
  35. Define Belief Perseverence
    Clinging to one’s initial conceptions after the basis on which they were formed has been discredited.
  36. Define Chronological Age
    The physical age of a person
  37. Define Mental Age
    The Development age of the brain.
  38. State the two views of intelligence.
    • One Ability
    • Many Abilities
  39. State the two intellectual abilities claimed by Cattell
    • Fluid Intelligence
    • Crystallized Intelligence
  40. State the seven intellectual abilities claimed by Gardner
    • Verbal
    • Mathematical
    • Spatial
    • Athletic
    • Musical
    • Interpersonal
    • Intrapersonal
  41. State the three goals of constructing an intelligence test.
    • Standarization
    • Reliability
    • Validity
  42. State the three intellectual abilities claimed by Sternberg.
    • Analytical
    • Creative
    • Practical
  43. List the two items that come with intoation.
    • Declarative
    • Question
  44. List the three parts of syntax
    • Actor + Action
    • Action + Object
    • Possessor + Possession
  45. State the two parts of concepts
    • Hierachies
    • Prototypes
  46. List the three types of problems to solve.
    • Arrangement
    • Inducing Structure
    • Transformation
  47. List the three ways to solve problems.
    • Algorithm
    • Heuristic
    • Insight
  48. List the three effects of people who err on the side of overconfidence
    • Live more happily
    • Find it easier to make tough decisions
    • Seem more credible than those who lack self-confidence
  49. Identify Lewis Terman
    Professor at Stanford, CA, who saw intelligence testing as a means to measure inherited intelligence
  50. Identify Alfred Binet & Theodore Simon
    identified French school children who would needspecial attention – scholastically
  51. Identify Willliam Stern.
    Determined the intelligence quotient.
  52. Identify Peter Wilson.
    Conducted an experiment to demistrate confirmation bias.
  53. Identify Calude Steele
    Studied labeling and stereotypes with respect to intelligence. Through an experiment involivng the "threat" between men and women who perform differently, he found that when removing the threat, the scores evened out. Thus he coined the term stereotype threat
  54. The __________________ is usually thought of as general intelligence and primarily focuses on _________.
    • One ability view
    • mental abilities
  55. General intelligence is also known as the _________.
  56. Multiple intelligences is also known as the __________.
    many abilities view
  57. Sternberg’s statement of three intellectual abilites is known as the _________
    Triarchic Theory
  58. The intellegence quotent is ____________________________________________.
    (mental age / chronological age) * 100
  59. IQ is no longer computed because it does not work with ________.
  60. In modern times, mental abiliites is assessed compared to all test takers ______________, with the average score being _______.
    • at that age
    • 100
  61. Standarization is also called _________.
    determining the norms
  62. Language development begins ________ after the infant is born.
  63. At age 3, children learn to ________________________________ and ______________________________.
    • make plurals by adding "s" to nouns.
    • Form the past tense by adding "ed" to verbs.
  64. Concepts are ordered with ____________ first (examples are ________ and ________) and _______ second.
    • Hierachies
    • categories
    • subcategories
    • prototypes

    • 1.

    • Concepts are ordered with ____________ first
    • (exampes are ________ and ________) and _______ second.
  65. Urge to seek information _________ our ideas is greter than the urge to seek information ______ our ideas.
    • confirming
    • disproving
  66. Intuitive judgments are often __________, but are ______________ to bad judgments
    • instantaneous
    • susceptible
  67. __________________ influences many of our daily decisions.
    Representativeness Heuristic
  68. The faster people ________ something, the more they expect it to _______.
    • remember
    • occur
  69. _______________ can be used to influence decisions.
  70. The main problem of testing is __________________.
    Dependence on language
  71. The neuroscience persepctive theory regarding the P3 brain wave pattern and intelligence is ____________________________.
    the brain of a smarter person will have smaller P3 brain waves over time because it adjusts faster to the interceptions and absorbs new inputs more readily
  72. Child Development: State what occurs by 3 months.
    babies begin cooling - producing vowel-like sounds such as "ooooo" and "aaahhh"
  73. Child Development: State what occurs by 4-5 months.
    Babbling: Speech like sounds that have no meaning such as "dah" or "bah". Over nexr few months, it will become more elaborate.
  74. Child Development: State what occurs by 7 months.
    Intonation Occurs
  75. Child Development: State what occurs by 10 months.
    Babies take on sounds that reflect the characteristics of the household language
  76. Child Development: 1 year
    Babies will begin to produce words (one word stage) that are meaningful, more purposeful. They will usually have consonant-vowel pairs
  77. Child Development: 2 years
    Babies move on to phrases comprised of a couple words and begin demonstrating syntax rules
  78. Child Development: 3 years
    Child demonstrates grammatical rules.
Card Set
Psychology Test #3 - Module 2
Thinking, Language, & Intelligence