Sociology 101 Exam 2.txt

  1. CHAPTER 5
  2. Types of Groups
    • Primary
    • Secondary
    • In-Group/Out-Group
    • Reference
    • Social Networks/Electronic Communities
    • Bureaucracies
  3. Iron Law of Oligarchy
    • Oligarchy- A system in which many are run by a few
    • Iron Law- refers to how organizations come to be dominated by a small, self-perpetuating elite
  4. In and Out Groups
    • Loyalty towards our "In-group" (ex, sports teams)
    • No loyalty (antagonism) toward "Out-groups" (ex, rival of "our" team)
    • Leads to Reference Groups and Cooley's Looking Glass Self
  5. Reference Groups
    • groups we refer to when we evaluate ourselves
    • We learn how to behave, look, etc. through family and experiences (watching a sports game) and change behavior from game 1 to game 2 after viewing others
  6. Cliques and Gangs
    • Also known as Social Networks, it is people linked to eachother based upon ashared interest
    • study groups, membership in community groups, etc.
    • Cliques- jocks, stoners, gear heads, etc.
  7. Implications for Diversity
    • Besides geography, social class, race-ethnicity and gender are barriers that seperate us into many small worlds
    • Difficult to get over because even own social networks contribute to social inequality
  8. Bureaucracies and Components
    • A formalized group
    • Characteristics-
    • ~ hierarchy and power centralized
    • ~ division of labor
    • ~ written rules
    • ~ written comunication/labor
    • ~ impersonality and replace-ability
    • Examples: boy scouts, financial aid office, Stanford Prision Experiement
  9. Functions and Dysfunctions of Bureaucracies
    • Function- to achieve more efficient results
    • Dysfunctions-
    • ~ Red Tape: "a rule is a rule"; "it's policy"
    • ~ Alienation: being a number instead of a human being
    • ~ Resistance to Alienation: primary groups develop at work to be seen as a human instead of a number
  10. The Peter Principle
    • the idea of each employee of a bureaucracy is promoted to his or her level of incompetence
    • Meaning, they are recognized by higher powers and promoted to the point (incompetence) where they have to hide behind others and take credit for those working under them
  11. Leaders
    • Leadership in Social Organizations- Instrumental (goal oriented) and Expressive (team oriented)
    • Leadership Styles- Authoritarian (gives orders), Democratic (finds concensus) and Laissez-Faire (highly permissive)
    • Think about Stanford Experiment
  12. Deviance
    refers to any violation of norms, whether the infraction is as minor as driving over the speed limit, as serious as murder, or humorous in a way
  13. Interaction with Norms
    • Norms make social life possible by making behavior predictable
    • Deviance break this "unwritten contract of life" and are therefore under social control to preserve norms
    • Shunning, dirty looks, reprimanding are ways of social control over these deviants
  14. Sanctions
    • Two Kinds- Formal (positive) and Informal (negative)
    • Negative- frowns and gossip to inprisonment, etc.
    • Positive- smiles to formal awards
  15. Differential Association Theory
    • people LEARN deviance
    • we learn to deviate from or conform to society's norms primariy from the different groups we associate with
    • families, friends, neighborhoods, subcultures, etc.
  16. Control Theory
    • Internal Control- we control ourselves
    • External Control- we are controlled
    • The bonds we hold with our community control (stop us) from taking part in deviant behavior
    • Attachment, Involvement, Commitment, Belief
  17. Labeling Theory
    • labels can be applied for action, alleged action or stigma
    • marginalized by those who don't do what you do (ex, dopers); made for you to feel bad/shame, finally aligned with "dopers" regardless of if it's true
    • internalize and BECOME a "doper" OR reject it
    • shaming can lead to reintegration
    • Examples: chain-gangs and prisoners picking up trash; Saint and the Roughnecks (Chambliss)
  18. Strain Theory and Adaptations
    • People who experience strain (frustration) for having their goals blocked turn to deviance
    • Adaptation: Conformity accepts goals and means (doesn't feel strain)
    • Innovation accepts goals, but rejects means (deviant)
    • Other deviant paths are Ritualism (A,R), Retreatism (R,R) and Rebellion (R,R and replace)
  19. Techniques of Neutralization
    • Denial of Responsibility (I'm not responsible because...)
    • Denial of Injury (Well, no one got hurt, so it wasn't wrong)
    • Denial of a Victim (They were the victim getting revenge)
    • Condemnation of the Condemners (deny others right to judge because they were "hypocrites")
    • Appeal to Higher Authority (I had to help my friends...)
  20. Wealth vs. Income
    • Example would be drug dealers
    • Income is something gained by working, it is a flow of money
    • Wealth is a person's net worth

    Drug dealers may own nothing (no wealth), but are filthy rich (income)
  21. Power and Prestige
    Power: The ability to impose your will on others, regardless of their own will

    Arguably, elites control property, wealth and power and get perks (think of car dealers needing money from President; they get it, we couldn't)

    Prestige: value given to those that hold certain statuses in our culture

    Property+ Wealth+Power+Prestige= special class/status (the elites)
  22. Distribution of Property in US
    • The distribution is STRUCTURED
    • This structure is called STRATIFICATION
    • Wealthiest 10% own 70% of wealth
    • Wealthiest 1% own 33% of wealth
  23. Poverty
    • The illusion of "poverty lines"
    • Tied to Opportunities and Education:
    • Poor Schools: Low college attendance
    • Few Careers: lower income and living in a poorer school system
    • Tied to Place:
    • moving from home
    • "need" to stay closer to family
  24. Myths of Poverty
    • 1.) Most poor people are lazy. They are poor because they do not want to work.
    • 2.) Poor people are trapped in a cycle of poverty that few escape.
    • 3.) Most of the poor are African Americans or Latinos.
    • 4.) Most of the poor are single mothers and their children.
    • 5.) Most of the poor live in the inner city.
    • 6.) The poor live on welfare.
  25. Statuses/Symbols and Inconsistency
    • Ascribed and Achieved
    • Some "achieved" gain prestige:
    • Tied with power
    • Status symbols (display status)

    Status Inconsistency: multiple statuses don't match (ex, poor person wins $200 million lottery)

    Results can lead to ANOMIE: perception of being without norms; can lead to strain
  26. Components of Class
    • Education
    • Parent's Class (their education/occupation)
    • Location/opportunities
    • Religion
    • Politics
    • Dependants
    • Etc...
  27. Social Mobility
    • Changing the social class you are a part of
    • Intergerational Mobility: change between generations
    • Upward Social Mobility: moving up in class
    • Downward Social Mobility: moving down in class

    Structural mobility (large scale)
Card Set
Sociology 101 Exam 2.txt
Sociology 101 Exam #2: Chapters 5,6,8