1. Accounts Payable
    Money an organization owes its vendors and suppliers
  2. Accounts Receivable
    Money an organization's customers owe the organization.
  3. Action Plans
    Detailed steps a unit, department, or team will take in order to achieve short-term objectives.
  4. Amendment
    Modification of the Constitution or a law:: modification may be either formal (written) or informal (unwritten)
  5. Assets
    Financial, physical, and sometimes intangible properties an organization owns.
  6. Balance Sheet
    Statement of a firm's financial position at a particular time.
  7. Balanced Scorecard
    Measurement approach that provides an overall picture of an organization's performance as measured against goals in finance, customers, internal business processes, and learning and growth.
  8. Bill
    Proposal presented to a legislative body for possible enactment as a law.
  9. Break-Even Analysis
    Analysis that shows point in time at which total revenue associated with a program is equal to the total cost of the program.
  10. Capacity
    To an operations department, the ability to yield output.
  11. Centralization
    Degree to which decision-making authority is restricted to higher levels of management in an organization.
  12. Code of Ethics
    Principles of conduct within an organization that guide decision making and behavior.
  13. Consumer Price Index (CPI)
    Principles of conduct within an organization that guide decision making and behavior.
  14. Control
    To an operations department, an after-the-fact evaluation of a company's ability to meet its own specifications and its customers' needs.
  15. Correlation
    Measure that indicates the relationship between two variables.
  16. Cost-Benefit Analysis
    Ratio that allows management to determine the financial impact particular activities and programs will have on a company's profitability.
  17. Decentralization
    Degree to which decision-making authority is given to lower levels in an organization's hierarchy.
  18. Deductive Reasoning
    Involves applying specific premises to a given situation to develop certain predictions about or understanding of te situation.
  19. Divestiture
    Sale by a company of an asset that is not performing well, that is not core to the company's business, or that is worth more as a separate entity.
  20. Divisional Structure
    Organizational structure in which segments are separated by product, customer or market, or region.
  21. Due Diligence
    Process of conducting an intensive investigation of a corporation as one of the first steps in a pending merger or acquisition.
  22. Electronic Communications Privacy Act (ECPA)
    Act that makes it unlawful to intercept messages in transmission, access stored information on electronic communication services, or disclose this information.
  23. Environmental Scanning
    Process that involves a systematic survey and interpretation of relevant data to identify external opportunities and threats.
  24. Equity
    Amount of owners' or shareholders' portion of a business.
  25. Ethics
    System of moral principles and values that establish appropriate conduct.
  26. Experiment
    Research in which the researcher controls and manipulates elements of the research environment to measure the impact of each variable.
  27. Extended Organization
    Alliance between organizations to create processes and information channels that allow communication and collaboration.
  28. Foreign Corrupt Practices Act (FCPA)
    Prohibits American companies from making corrupt payments to foreign officials for the purpose of obtaining or keeping business.
  29. Formula Budgeting
    Form of budgeting in which an average cost is applied to comparable expenses and general funding is changed by a specific amount.
  30. Functional Structure
    Organizational structure that defines departments by what services they contribute to the organization's overall mission.
  31. Gantt Chart
    Project planning tool that graphically displays activities of a project in sequential order and plots them against time.
  32. Generation X
    Group of people born roughly between the years of 1965 and 1980.
  33. Generation Y
    Group of people born after 1980
  34. Gross Domestic Product (GDP)
    Estimate of the total value of goods and services produced in a country in a given year.
  35. Gross Profit Margin
    Measures the difference between what it cost to produce a product and the selling price.
  36. HR Audit
    Process to measure the effectiveness and efficiency of HR programs
  37. Human Capital
    Combined knowledge, skills and experience of a company's employees.
  38. Human Resource Information System (HRIS)
    Systematic tool for gathering, storing, maintaining, retrieving, and revising HR data.
  39. Human Resource Management (HRM)
    Design of formal systems in an organization that ensure the effective and efficient use of human talent to accomplish organizational goals.
  40. Hypothesis
    Specific, testable prediction that is derived from a theory and describes a relationship between two variables.
  41. Income Statement
    Statement explaining revenues, expenses, and profits over a specified period of time, usually a year or a quarter.
  42. Incremental Budgeting
    Form of budgeting in which the prior budget is the basis for allocation of funds.
  43. Inductive Reasoning
    Involves looking at a set of observations and designing a rule that characterizes or explains a pattern underlying the observations.
  44. Inventory
    To an operations department, an organization's major asset after physical buildings and equipment.
  45. Liabilities
    Organization's debts and other financial obligations.
  46. Line Units
    Work groups that conduct the major business of an organization.
  47. Long-Term Objectives
    Specific results, to be accomplished in three to five years, that an organization seeks to achieve in pursuing its mission.
  48. Marketing
    Process of planning, pricing, promoting, and distributing goods and services to satisfy organiztional objectives.
  49. Matrix Structure
    Organizational structure that combines departmentalization by division and function to gain the benefits of both.
  50. Mean
    Average score or value in a set of data
  51. Median
    Middle point above and below which 50% of scores in a set of data lie.
  52. Mergers and Acquisitions (M&A)
    Combination of two separate firms either by their joining together as relative equals (merger) or by one acquiring the other (acquisition).
  53. Mid-term Objectives
    Serve a purpose similar to short-term objectives but are completed in one to three years.
  54. Mission Statement
    Specifies what the comay does, who its customers are, and the priorities it has set in pursuing its work.
  55. Mode
    Value that occurs most frequently in a set of data.
  56. Normal Distribution
    Expected distribution given a random sampling across a large population.
  57. Offshoring
    Relocation of processes or functions from a "home" country to another country.
  58. Outsourcing
    Buying services externally rather than producing them internally.
  59. Percentile
    Specific point in a distribution of data that has a given percentage of cases below it.
  60. Population
    Group of persons or objects or a complete set of observations or measurements about which one wishes to draw conclusions.
  61. Primary Research
    Involves data that is gathered firsthand for a specific evaluation.
  62. Product
    What an organizations sells to make a profit.
  63. Program Evaluation and Review Technique (PERT) Chart
    Project management tool used to schedule, organize, and coordinate tasks within a project.
  64. Project
    Series of tasks and activities that has a stated goal and objectives, a schedule with defined start and end dates, and a budget that sets limits on the use of monetary and human resources.
  65. Promotion
    Techniques for communicating information about products to consumers.
  66. Public Comment Period
    Time allowed for the public to express its views and concerns regarding an action of a regulatory agency.
  67. Qualitative Analysis
    Based on research that uses open-ended interviewing to explore and understand attitudes, opinions, feelings, and behavior.
  68. Quantitative Analysis
    Seeks to obtain easily quantifiable data on a limited number of measurement points.
  69. Quorum
    Number of members of an organization that have to be present before official business may be conducted.
  70. Range
    Distance between highest and lowest scores in a set of data.
  71. Regression Analysis
    Statistical method used to predict a variable from one or more predictor variables.
  72. Regulation
    Rule or order issued by a government agency:: often has the force of law.
  73. Reliability
    Ability of an instrument to measure consistently.
  74. Request for Proposal (RFP)
    Written request asking contractors to propose solutions and prices that fit customer's requirements.
  75. Resolution
    Legislative measure limited in effect to either the Congress or one of its chambers.
  76. Return on Investment (ROI)
    Calculation that measures the economic return on a project or investment.
  77. Sales
    Business function responsible for selling an organization's product to the marketplace.
  78. Sample
    Portion of a population used to draw conclusions regarding an entire population.
  79. Sandwich Generation
    Portion of silent and baby boom generations that is simultaneously caring for their own children and one or more elderly family members.
  80. Scatter Diagram
    Diagram that shows the relationship between data items using x and y axises
  81. Scheduling
    To an operations department, the act of detailed planning:: based upon incoming orders, order history, and forecasts of future demand.
  82. Scientific Method
    Research method in which certain factors (variables) are manipulated and the results are examined.
  83. Secondary Research
    Uses data already gathered by others and reported in various sources.
  84. Short-Term Objectives
    Milestones that must be achieved, usually within six months to one year, in order to reach long-term objectives.
  85. Social Capital
    Interaction among employees toward meeting objectives.
  86. Span of Control
    Refers to the number of individuals who report to a supervisor.
  87. Staff Units
    Work groups that assist line units by providing specialized services, such as HR.
  88. Standard Deviation
    Measure that indicates how much scores in a set of data are spread out around a mean or average.
  89. Standards
    For an operations department, provide the yardstick by which the amount and quality of output are measured.
  90. Strategic Business Management
    Process and activities used to formulate HR objectives, practices, and policies.
  91. Strategic Planning
    Process that helps an organization focus on how to succeed in the future by evaluating the organization's current status, where it would like to be, and how to get there.
  92. Strategies
    Provide the direction that enables an organization to achieve its long term objectives.
  93. Supply Chain
    Global network that delivers products and services from raw materials to end customers through an engineered flow of information, physical distribution, and cash.
  94. SWOT Analysis
    Process for evaluating an organization's current strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats.
  95. Validity
    Ability of an instrument to measure what it is intended to measure.
  96. Values
    Describe what is important to an organization, dictate employee behavior, and create the organization's culture.
  97. Veto
    Action of canceling of postponing a decision or bill.
  98. Vision Statement
    Vivid, guiding image of an organization's desired future.
  99. Zero-based Budgeting
    Form of budgeting that requires that expenditures be justified for each new period.
  100. Accident
    Undesired event that results in physical harm to a person or damage to property.
  101. Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS)
    Bloodborne pathogen transmitted through intimate contact.
  102. Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA)
    Act that prohibits discrimination against a qualified individual with a disability because of his/her disability.
  103. Bloodborne Pathogens
    Microorganisms in human blood that can cause disease in humans.
  104. Bloodborne Pathogens Standard
    OSHA standard that requires employers to protect employees from potentially infectious materials.
  105. Building-related Illness (BRI)
    Situation in which building occupants experience acute health and comfort effects that can be attributed directly to airborne building contaminants.
  106. Business Continuity Planning
    Management process that identifies potential threats and impacts to an organization and provides framework for ensuring that it is able to withstand disruption, interruption, or loss of normal business functions/operation.
  107. Computer Vision Syndrome (CVS)
    Vision problems such as headaches and blurred vision that are associated with video display terminals.
  108. Confined Space Entry Standard
    OSHA standard that requires space-entry restrictions, rescue procedures, and a written safe-entry program to address concerns over adequate oxygen content in the air, toxic substance exposure, and physical exposures for workers in confined spaces.
  109. Constructive Confrontation
    Intervention strategy that focuses on job performance.
  110. Control of Hazardous Energy Standard
    OSHA standard that requires employers to protect employees from potentially infectious materials.
  111. Counseling
    Form of intervention in which the emphasis is on the cause of a problem rather than on job performance.
  112. De Minimis Violation
    Violation of an OSHA standard that does not have a direct impact on employees' safety and health on the job.
  113. Directors' and Officers' (D&O) Liability Insurance
    Protects directors, officers, and corporations from claims such as shareholder class actions and SEC violations for fraud and mismanagement.
  114. Disaster Recovery Plan
    Guidelines and procedures to be used by an organization for the recovery of business operations when lost due to disasters such as earthquakes, fires, tornadoes, floods, hurricanes, terrorism, or epidemics.
  115. Drug-Free Workplace Act
    Requires federal contractors with contracts of $100,000 or more as well as recipients of grants from federal government to certify they are maintaining a drug-free workplace.
  116. Early-Return-To-Work Program
    When an employer offers an employee a less strenuous job until he or she is fit to return to their regular job:: also known as modified-duty program.
  117. Emergency Exit Procedures (Means of Egress) Standard
    OSHA standard that provides guidelines for preparing an emergency action plan and includes specifications regarding exits and maintenance of emergency systems.
  118. Employee Assistance Programs (EAPs)
    Company-sponsored programs that deliver a variety of health-related services, which are provided by licensed professionals or organizations and offer employees a high degree of confidentiality.
  119. Employment Practices Liability Insurance (EPLI)
    Insurance that provides employers with protection against claims of discrimination, wrongful termination, sexual harassment, or other employment-related issues.
  120. Enterprise Risk Management (ERM)
    Software systems that help identify and manage operational risk across an organization.
  121. Epidemiology
    Branch of medicine that investigates the causes and control of diseases in a population.
  122. Ergonomics
    Design of the work environment to address the physical demands experienced by employees.
  123. Errors and Omissions (E&O) Insurance
    Form of professional liability coverage that protects against employment claims.
  124. Fair Labor Standards Act (FLSA)
    Act that regulates employee overtime status, overtime pay, child labor, minimum wage, record keeping, and other administrative concerns.
  125. Genetic Information Nondiscrimination Act (GINA)
    Act that prohibits discrimination against individuals on the basis of their genetic information in both employment and health care.
  126. Hazard
    Incident without adequate controls applied.
  127. Hazard Communication Standard (Employee Right-to-Know Law)
    OSHA standard that requires labeling, Material Safety Data Sheets, training, orientation for new and transferred employees, and hazard communication programs to inform employees of hazardous chemicals in the workplace.
  128. Health
    State of well-being, free of illness or disease.
  129. Homeland Security Act
    Act designed to secure the United States against terrorist attacks and other threats and hazards and ensure safe and secure borders.
  130. Human immunodeficiency Virus (HIV)
    Virus that may lead to the development of the acquired immune deficiency Syndrome (AIDS)
  131. Incident
    Any deviation from an acceptable standard
  132. Job Burnout
    Depletion of physical/mental resources caused by excessive striving to reach an unrealistic work-related goal.
  133. Lockout
    Refers to installing a lock, disconnect switch, or shutoff valve so equipment cannot be activated by mistake.
  134. Machine Guarding Standard
    OSHA standard that provides general requirements for all machinery to protect operator and other employees.
  135. Material Safety Data Sheets (MSDS)
    Must be provided by manufactures for every hazardous substance:: employers must evaluate chemicals and inform employees of hazardous properties.
  136. Mine Safety and Health Act
    Established mandatory safety and health standards for underground and surface mines.
  137. Modified-Duty Program
    When an employer offers an employee a less strenuous job until he or she is fit to return to their regular job:: also known as early-return-to-work program.
  138. Multidrug-resistant TB (MDR-TB)
    Form of tuberculosis that is resistant to current drug therapy.
  139. Musculoskeletal Disorder (MSD)
    Disease caused by repetitive motion that affects muscles, nerves, tendon, ligaments, joints, cartilage, blood vessels, and spinal disks:: also called cumulative trauma syndrome (CTS), cumulative trauma disorder (CTD), or repetitive stress injury.
  140. National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH)
    Agency that provides health and safety information.
  141. Needlestick Safety and Prevention Act
    Revision to Bloodborne Pathogens standard that requires employers to minimize employees' exposure to blood through sharps injuries.
  142. Occupational Illness
    Medical condition or disorder, other than one resulting from an occupational injury, caused by exposure to environmental factors associated with employment.
  143. Occupational Injury
    Injury that results from a work-related accident or exposure involving a single incident in the work environment.
  144. Occupational Noise Exposure (Hearing Conservation) Standard
    OSHA standard that requires employers to provide controls to reduce unsafe noise levels in the workplace.
  145. Occupational Safety and Health Act (OSHA)
    Act that established the first national policy for safety and health and continues to deliver standards that employers mus meet to guarantee the health and safety of their employees.
  146. Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA)
    Agency that administers and enforces the Occupational Safety and Health Act of 1970.
  147. Occupational Safety and Health Review Commission (OSHRC)
    Group that rules on contested OSHA citations.
  148. OSHA's Form 300
    Log of Work-Related Injuries and Illnesses:: used to classify work-related injuries and illnesses and to note the extent and severity of each case.
  149. OSHA's Form 300A
    Summary of Work-Related Injuries and Illnesses:: shows the totals of work-related injuries and illnesses for the year in each category.
  150. OSHA's Form 301
    Injury and Illness Incident Report:: supplemental record that covers the details of each occupational injury and illness.
  151. Other-than-serious violation
    Violation of an OSHA standard that would probably not cause serious physical harm or death.
  152. Pandemic
    Emergence of a disease new to the population:: the agent infects humans, causing serious illness, and spreads easily and sustainably.
  153. Personal Protective Equipment Standard
    OSHA standard that protects employees from environmental, process, chemical, mechanical, or impairment and sets criteria for acceptable equipment designs.
  154. Process Safety Management Standard
    OSHA standard aimed at preventing or minimizing the effect of catastrophic releases of toxic, reactive, flammable, or explosive chemicals.
  155. Professional Liability Insurance
    Insurance that protects directors, officers, employees, and organizations against claims of negligence in the performance of professional services.
  156. Proprietary Information
    Sensitive information owned by a company that gives the company certain competitive advantages.
  157. Repeat Violation
    Violation of an OSHA standard that is a repeat of a violation found under a previous inspection.
  158. Risk Management
    Use of Insurance and other strategies in an effort to prevent or minimize an organization's exposure to liability in the event a loss or injury occurs.
  159. Risk management Scorecard
    Tool used to make calculated judgments based on the probability that a circumstance will occur and the potential consequences.
  160. Safety
    Freedom from hazard, risk, or injury.
  161. Safety Committees
    Composed of workers from different levels and departments who are involved in safety planning and programs.
  162. Security
    Physical/procedural measures used to protect people, property, and information in the workplace.
  163. Serious Violation
    Violation of an OSHA standard that is likely to cause death or serious injury on the job.
  164. Sick Building Syndrome (SBS)
    Situation in which building occupants experience acute health and comfort effects that appear to be linked to time spent in a building but no specific illness or cause can be identified.
  165. State Plans
    Safety and health policies and procedures that states have adopted and that have been approved by OSHA.
  166. Stress
    Mental and physical condition that results from a real or perceived threat and the inability to remove it or cope with it.
  167. Tagout
    Signs or labels attached to equipment to warn others not to activate it.
  168. Teratogens
    Products that affect a fetus but not the pregnant mother.
  169. Terrorism
    Use of force or violence against persons or property in violation of the criminal laws of the United States for purposes of intimidation, or ransom.
  170. Tuberculosis (TB)
    Airborne contagious disease caused by a bacterial infection.
  171. Unsafe Acts
    Incidents that result from unsafe behavior on the part of the employee, such as operating equipment at high speeds.
  172. Unsafe Conditions
    Mechanical or physical hazards that may lead to injury, such as defective equipment or improper lighting.
  173. USA PATRIOT Act
    Act that gives federal officials greater authority to take measures to combat terrorism.
  174. Voluntary Protection Program (VPP)
    Voluntary group of employers that promotes and recognizes effective safety and health programs.
  175. Vulnerabilities
    Security risk factors.
  176. Wellness Programs
    Preventive health programs offered by employers designed to improve the health and physical well-being of employees both on and off the job.
  177. Willful Violation
    Violation of an OSHA standard that is considered intentional.
  178. Principled negotiation
    Type of contract negotiation based on four premises: 1) separate the people from the problem, 2) focus on interests, not positions, 3) invent options for mutual gain, and 4) insist on objective criteria
  179. Agency shop
    Clause that states that even if workers do not join the union, they must still pay the equivalent of dues to the union
  180. Circuit City Stores v. Adams
    Case in which Supreme Court ruled that a pre-hire employment application requiring that all employment disputes be settled by arbitration was enforceable under the Federal Arbitration Act
  181. Compressed workweek
    Work schedule that compresses a full week's work into fewer than five days
  182. Closed shop
    Clause that states that union membership is a condition of hiring:: is illegal (except in the construction industry).
  183. Progressive discipline
    System of increasingly severe penalties for employee discipline
  184. Recognitional picketing
    Picketing done to obtain an employer's recognition of a union as bargaining representative
  185. Social charter
    As related to international labor relations, legislation pending before European Union where employment conditions/practices would be standardized
  186. Employment-at-will (EAW)
    Common-law principle stating that employers have the right to hire, fire, demote, and promote whomever they choose for any reason unless there is a law or contract to the contrary and that employees have the right to quit a job at any time
  187. Procedure
    Detailed, step-by-step description of the customary method of handling an activity
  188. Certification of results
    NLRB certification indicating that a union has lost an election
  189. Express oral contract
    Involves verbal promises made between employer and employee related to employment
  190. Zipper clause
    Contract stipulation in which both parties waive the right to demand bargaining on any matter not dealt with in the contract, whether or not that matter was contemplated when the contract was negotiated or signed
  191. No-strike clause
    Contract stipulation in which union agrees not to strike during the duration of the contract
  192. Focus group
    Small group (normally six to twelve) invited to actively participate in a structured discussion with a facilitator
  193. Expatriation
    Process of sending employees abroad and supporting their ability to adapt to cultural changes and complete their international assignment
  194. National Labor Relations Board (NLRB)
    Agency that has authority to conduct union representation elections and investigate unfair labor practices
  195. Shop floor participation
    As related to international labor relations, a participatory management approach in which workers have the opportunity to identify problems and help resolve them
  196. Duty of good faith and fair dealing
    Imposes on each party in a contract an obligation for honesty in the conduct of the transaction
  197. Work team
    Group of employees responsible for a given end product
  198. Arbitration
    Procedure in which disputes are submitted to one or more impartial persons for final determination
  199. Positional negotiation
    Type of contract negotiation in which people lock themselves into positions and find it difficult to move away, parties lose sight of the underlying problems to be resolved, and emphasis is placed on winning the position
  200. Excelsior List
    List the employer has to provide the union with the names and addresses of certain employees within seven days after the direction of or consent to an election
  201. Weingarten rights
    Union employees' right to have a union representative or coworker present during an investigatory interview
  202. Neutrality agreement
    Contract between a union and an employer under which the employer agrees not to oppose a union's attempt to organize its workforce
  203. Certification of representative
    NLRB certification indicating that a union has won an election and will be the exclusive representative of the bargaining unit
  204. Job enlargement
    Broadening the scope of a job by expanding the number of different tasks to be performed
  205. National Industrial Recovery Act
    Act that extended the policies of the Railway Labor Act to all interstate commerce organizations
  206. Interest-based bargaining (IBB)
    Form of negotiating where parties look for common ground and attempt to satisfy mutual interests through the bargaining process
  207. Illegal subjects
    Those collective bargaining items that are unlawful by statute:: also known as external subjects
  208. Duty of successor employers or unions
    Mutual bargaining obligation of an employer and a union when a majority interest in a unionized company is sold to another employer
  209. Sympathy strike
    Strike by employees of a bargaining unit who refuse to cross picket lines made up of employees who are not members of their bargaining unit
  210. Dues checkoff
    Where employees agree in writing to an automatic deduction of dues from their paychecks
  211. Inevitable disclosure
    Enables an employer to prevent an employee from taking employment with a competitor when the current employer's trade secrets might "inevitably" be disclosed
  212. Norris-LaGuardia Act
    Act that guarantees workers' right to organize and restricts issuance of court injunctions against nonviolent union activity such as strikes, picketing, and boycotts
  213. E. I. Dupont & Company
    1993 NLRB ruling that held certain employee committees to be illegal because Dupont management circumvented the legally chosen employee representatives and usurped the union's right to represent its members
  214. Union shop
    Clause that states that when workers take jobs in a specific bargaining unit, they must join the union and pay union dues within a certain period of time
  215. Work rule
    Reflects management decisions regarding specific actions to be taken or avoided in a given situation
  216. Telecommuting
    Working via computing and telecommunications equipment
  217. Distributive bargaining
    When parties are in conflict over an issue and the outcome represents a gain for one party and a loss for the other:: each party tries to negotiate for the best possible outcome
  218. Good-faith bargaining
    Generally means that parties in a negotiation enter into discussion with fair and open minds and a sincere desire to arrive at an agreement
  219. Directed election
    Type of representation election ordered by the NLRB regional director after a preelection hearing
  220. Duty of fair representation
    Requires that unions act fairly on behalf of the employees they represent in negotiating and administering collective bargaining agreements
  221. Grievance procedure
    Provides an orderly way to resolve differences of opinion in regard to a union contract
  222. Union
    Formal association of employees that promotes the interests of its membership through collective action
  223. Pattern bargaining
    Takes place when unions negotiate provisions covering wages and other benefits similar to those already provided in other agreements existing within the industry or region:: also known as parallel bargaining
  224. Federal Labor Relations Authority (FLRA)
    Administers the provisions of the various executive orders that fall under the Civil Service Reform Act of 1978
  225. Fraudulent misrepresentation
    Intentional deception relied upon and resulting in injury to another person
  226. U.S. Equal Employment Opportunity Commission (EEOC)
    Federal agency responsible for enforcing antidiscrimination laws and handling charges
  227. Job rotation
    Breaks the monotony of routine jobs by shifting people between comparable but different jobs
  228. Union security clauses
    Provisions in a collective bargaining agreement designed to protect the institutional authority or survival of the union (e.g., making union membership or payment of dues compulsory for all or some of the employees in a bargaining unit)
  229. Employee involvement (EI)
    Planned and orderly attempt to link the shared interests of the employee and the company for their mutual benefit
  230. Featherbedding
    Situation in which unions try to require the employment of more workers than is necessary
  231. Community of interests
    Mutuality of interests among employees in bargaining for wages, hours, and working conditions
  232. Authorization cards
    Cards signed by employees to indicate that they want union representation:: also called authorization petitions
  233. Reserved rights doctrine
    Grants management full authority and discretion over the items that are or could be covered unless the contract limits management's rights in a particular area
  234. Job sharing
    Results when two part-time employees share one full-time job
  235. Industrial democracy
    As related to international labor relations, where employees have legally mandated rights to participate in management decisions
  236. Recognition
    When an employer recognizes a union as being entitled to conduct collective bargaining on behalf of workers in a particular bargaining unit
  237. Integrative bargaining
    Takes place when there is more than one issue to be resolved:: focuses on creative solutions to conflicts that reconcile parties' interests and result in mutual benefit
  238. Defamation
    Injuring someone's reputation by making a false and malicious statement:: may be spoken (slander) or written (libel).
  239. Hot cargo clauses
    Agreement that union members are not required to handle goods made by nonunion labor or a struck plant:: generally illegal
  240. Common law
    Dictates that custom and usage have the force of law, even if not specifically found in legislatively enacted, codified, written laws
  241. Strike
    Refusal by employees to work
  242. Clayton Act
    Act that minimally restricted the use of injunctions against labor and legalized peaceful strikes, picketing, and boycotts
  243. Deauthorization
    Removes authority of a bargaining representative in a non-right-to-work state to negotiate or enforce a union security clause
  244. Bumping
    Giving more-senior workers whose jobs have been eliminated the right to transfer into jobs of less-senior workers
  245. Collective bargaining agreement (CBA)
    Agreement or contract negotiated through collective bargaining process
  246. Consumer picketing
    Product boycotts involving such activities as distributing handbills, carrying placards, and urging customers to refuse to purchase products from a particular retail or wholesale business
  247. Mediation
    Method of nonbinding dispute resolution involving a third party who helps disputing parties reach a mutually agreeable decision:: also known as conciliation
  248. Unfair labor practice (ULP)
    Violation of right under labor-relations statutes
  249. Codetermination
    As related to international labor relations, a practice in which employees have a role in the management of a company that includes worker representatives with voting rights on the corporate board of directors
  250. Skip-level interviews
    Practice in union-free organizations of encouraging managers to spend time with each employee two levels below them on an annual basis
  251. Yellow dog contracts
    Contracts that force employees to agree not to join a union or participate in any union activity as a condition of employment
  252. Collective bargaining
    Process by which management and union representatives negotiate the employment conditions for a particular bargaining unit for a designated period of time
  253. Coordinated bargaining
    When an employer bargains with several unions simultaneously but on a separate basis
  254. Job enrichment
    Increases the depth of a job by adding responsibility for planning, organizing, controlling, and evaluation
  255. Conciliation
    Method of nonbinding dispute resolution involving a third party who tries to help disputing parties reach a mutually agreeable decision:: also known as mediation
  256. Sherman Anti-Trust Act
    Act that curbed concentrations of power that interfered with trade and reduced economic competition:: directed at large monopolistic employers but applied by courts to labor unions
  257. Negligent retention
    Retention of employees who engage in misconduct both during and after working hours
  258. Task identity
    Extent to which a job requires a "whole," identifiable unit of work
  259. Right to work
    Refers to statutes that prohibit unions from making union membership a condition of employment
  260. Informational picketing
    Type of picketing done to advise the public that an employer is nonunion
  261. Committee
    Group of people and resources who come together for the accomplishment of a specific organizational objective
  262. Flextime
    Work schedule that requires employees to work an established number of hours per week but allows starting and ending times to vary
  263. U.S. Equal Employment Opportunity Commission (EEOC)
    Federal agency responsible for enforcing antidiscrimination laws and handling charges
  264. Civil Service Reform Act
    Act that extended collective bargaining rights to federal employees
  265. TIPS
    Acronym used by many labor management attorneys and consultants that covers most of the unfair labor practice pitfalls a supervisor can run into: Don't Threaten, Interrogate, Promise, or Spy
  266. Organizational picketing
    Type of picketing done to induce employees to accept the union as their representative
  267. Bargaining unit
    Group of employees a union wants to represent
  268. Consent election
    Type of representation election that involves an agreement between an employer and a union to waive the preelection hearing
  269. Injunction
    Court order that directs a party, employer, or union to do or refrain from doing a certain act (or acts).
  270. Agent-principal relationship
    Principle under which regulations on unfair labor practices that apply to employers and unions also apply to acts of their agents
  271. Implied contract
    Exists when an agreement is implied from circumstances even though there is no express agreement between employer and employee
  272. Team
    Set of two or more people who are equally accountable for the accomplishment of a purpose and specific performance goals
  273. Permissive subjects
    Collective bargaining items that may be bargained but are not obligatory:: also called voluntary or nonmandatory subjects
  274. Wildcat strikes
    Work stoppages involving the primary employer-employee relationship that are neither sanctioned nor stimulated by the union and that violate a no-strike clause in the contract
  275. Duty of loyalty
    Common-law precept that imposes on employees a duty to be loyal to the employer
  276. Maintenance of membership
    Contract clause that states that an employee may or may not choose to join a union but once the employee joins, he/she must maintain membership for the duration of the contract
  277. Double breasting
    When a common owner operates both union and nonunion businesses
  278. Secondary boycotts
    Action directed at a primary party through action against some third party
  279. Salting
    Process of using paid union organizers to infiltrate an organization and organize its workers
  280. Landrum-Griffin Act
    Act that protects the rights of union members from corrupt or discriminatory labor unions:: also known as Labor-Management Reporting and Disclosure Act (LMRDA)
  281. Unfair competition
    Deals with employment contracts that contain covenants not to compete after termination of employment relationship and with the use of secret, confidential, or proprietary information that the employee obtained while working for the former employer
  282. Decertification
    Means for employees to terminate union representation:: removes union from its position as bargaining representative
  283. Negligent hiring
    Hiring of an employee who the employer knew or should have known, based on a reasonable pre-hire investigation of the employee's background, posed a risk to others in the workplace
  284. Certification of representative
    NLRB certification indicating that a union has won an election and will be the exclusive representative of the bargaining unit
  285. Wagner Act
    Act that protects the rights of employees to organize unhampered by management:: also known as National Labor Relations Act (NLRA)
  286. Task significance
    Extent to which a job has a substantial impact on other people
  287. Alternative dispute resolution (ADR)
    Umbrella term used to describe a number of problem-solving and grievance resolution approaches
  288. Policy
    Broad statement that reflects an organization's philosophy, objectives, or standards concerning a particular set of management or employee activities
  289. Work councils
    As related to international labor relations, groups of workers and management representatives charged with examining how to improve company performance, working conditions, job security, etc.
  290. Employee handbook
    Explains major HR and employee policies and procedures and generally describes the employee benefits provided
  291. Phased retirement
    Offers employees the opportunity to gradually reduce the number of hours they work before they are fully retired
  292. Project team
    Group of people who come together for a specific project
  293. Taft-Hartley Act
    Act that provides balance of power between union and management by designating certain union activities as unfair labor practices:: also known as Labor-Management Relations Act (LMRA).
  294. Organizational feedback
    Presentation of data to stimulate discussion of problem areas, generate potential solutions, and stimulate motivation for change
  295. Federal Mediation and Conciliation Service (FMCS)
    Offers assistance in contract settlement and maintains a list of arbitrators to help interpret contract language and resolve disputes
  296. Self-directed team
    Group of people that works in a self-managing way:: typically assume complete autonomy
  297. Common situs picketing
    Situation in which lawful picketing of a primary employer also affects a secondary employer that occupies common premises:: employers may establish separate or reserved gates, one for the struck employer and the other for all other employers
  298. Railway Labor Act
    Act that originally provided railroad employees the right to organize and bargain collectively:: now covers both railroad and airline employees
  299. No-lockout clause
    Contract stipulation in which the company agrees not to lock out workers during a labor dispute for the life of the contract
  300. Task force
    Temporary allocation of personnel and resources for the accomplishment of a specific objective
  301. Ally doctrine
    States that when a struck employer effectively uses the employees of an ally as strike breakers and when a union extends its primary picketing to this employer, no violation of the LMRA's secondary boycott prohibitions exists
  302. Coalition bargaining
    When more than one employer negotiates with the union:: also known as multiple employer bargaining
  303. Mandatory subjects
    Collective bargaining items required by law and the NLRB.
  304. Labor-Management Reporting and Disclosure Act (LMRDA)
    Act that protects the rights of union members from corrupt or discriminatory labor unions:: also known as Landrum-Griffin Act
  305. Labor-Management Relations Act (LMRA)
    Act that provides balance of power between union and management by designating certain union activities as unfair labor practices:: also known as Taft-Hartley Act
  306. National Labor Relations Act (NLRA)
    Act that protects the rights of employees to organize unhampered by management:: also known as Wagner Act
  307. Electromation
    1992 court decision that employers must deal cautiously with employee participation committees based on the NLRB's interpretation of what constitutes a company-dominated labor organization.
  308. Job Bidding
    Employee application and/or prior request system used to help employees change jobs.
  309. Job Posting
    Situation in which currently available positions are posted so interested and qualified employees may apply.
  310. Lilly Ledbetter Fair Pay Act
    Act that creates a rolling or open time frame for filing wage discrimination claims and expands the plaintiff field beyond the employee who was discriminated against.
  311. Local Nationals
    Employees hired for jobs in their own countries.
  312. Lockout
    Occurs when management shuts down operations to prevent union employees from working.
  313. Skill Variety
    Extent to which a job requires a variety of different activities for successful completion.
  314. Base pay
    Basic compensation an employee recives usually as a wage or salary
  315. Compa-ratio
    Pay level divided by the midpoint of the pay range
  316. Copeland "Anti-Kickback" Act
    Act that prohibits federal contractors from receiving kickbacks from employees or subcontractors for wages earned on federal projects
  317. Defined contribution plan
    Plan in which the employer and sometimes the employee make an annual payment to the employee's retirement plan account
  318. Employee Retirement Income Security Act (ERISA)
    Act that established uniform minimum standards for employer sponsored retirement and health and welfare benefit programs
  319. Exempt emloyees
    Employees who are excluded from FLSA overtime pay requirements
  320. Fee for service health care plan
    Full choice health care plan that allows covered employees to go to any qualified physician or hospital and submit claims to the insurance company:: also know as indemnity health care plan
  321. Gainsharing plans
    Group incentives where a portion of the gains an organization realizes from group efforts is shared with the group
  322. Group term life insurance
    Form of insurance carried by employers for their employees that provides a lump sum payment to the employees beneficiaries
  323. Health savings account (HSA)
    Tax sheltered savings account similar to an IRA but created primarily to pay for medical expenses
  324. Individual retirement accounts (IRAs)
    Tax deferred accounts to which wage earners can contribute an amount up to a yearly maximum
  325. Job ranking
    Evaluation method that establishes a hierarchy of jobs from lowest to highest based on overall importance to the organization
  326. Maturity curves
    Correlate pay with time spent in a professional field such as teaching or research
  327. Multinational companies (MNCs)
    Companies that conduct business and have offices in a number of different countires
  328. Overtime pay
    Required for nonexempt workers under FLSA at 1.5 times the regular rate of pay for hours over 40 in a workweek
  329. Pension Benefit Guaranty Corporation (PBGC)
    Set up by ERISA to insure payment of benefits in the event that a private sector defined benefit pension plan terminates with insufficient funds to pay the benefits
  330. Point of service organization (POS)
    Combination of a PPO and an HMO:: provides direct access to specialists
  331. Productivity based pay
    Pay based on the quantity of work and outputs that can be accurately measured
  332. Red circle rates
    Describe situations where employees pay is above the range maximum
  333. Salary compression
    Occurs when there is only a small difference in pay between employees regardless of their skills, experience or seniority also know as pay compression
  334. Service Contract Act
    Act that extended prevailing wage rate and benefit requirements to employers providing services under federal government contracts
  335. Social Security
    Social Security Administration program that provides retirement, disability, death and survivors benefits
  336. Tax Reform Act
    Act that made significant changes in employee benefit programs, especially retirement plans
  337. Travel pay
    Typically paid to nonexempt workers for the time they spend traveling to or between work assignments
  338. Voluntary deductions
    Payroll deductins selected by the employee such as charitable contributions
  339. 403 (b) plans
    Plans that allow employees of certain tax exempt organizations to contribute pretax dollars toward retirement savings
  340. Cash balance plan
    Form of defined benefit plan that defines the promised benefit in terms of a hypothetical account balance and features benefit portability
  341. Consumer directed health care
    Health care options intended to help employers better control costs while allowing employees to make more decisions about their health care
  342. Defense authorization bill
    Act that excluded federal contractors from overtime pay requirements after eight hours of work in a day:: in their case, time and a half must be paid only for hours in excess of 40 per week
  343. Economic Growth and Tax Relief Reconciliation Act (EGTRRA)
    Act that adjusts minimum vesting schedules, increases retirement plan compensation and contribution limits, permits catch-up contributions by participants age 50 or older in certain retirement plans, and modifies distribution and rollover rules
  344. Excess deferral plans
    Nonqualified deferred compensation plans that provide benefits to selected management or highly compensated employees beyond Section 401 or 415 limitations
  345. Factor Evaluation System (FES)
    Point factor job evaluation system developed by the U.S. government
  346. Frequency table
    Shows the number of people or organizations associated with data organized in a frequency distribution
  347. Graded vesting
    System by which qualified retirement plan participants become incrementally vested over a period of years of service
  348. Health insurance purchasing cooperative (HIPC)
    Purchases health care plans for large groups of employers to provide small businesses the economic advantages large companies have
  349. Indemnity health care plan
    Full choice health care plan that allows covered employees to go to any qualified physician or hospital and submit claims to the insurance company:: also know as fee for service health care plan
  350. IRS 20 Factor Test
    Set of 20 factors that the IRS uses to determine whether workers are employees or independent contractors
  351. Lump sum increase (LSI)
    One time payment made to an employee also called performance bonus
  352. Merit pay
    Situation where an individuals performance is the basis for either the amount or timing of pay increases:: also called peformance based pay
  353. Omnibus Budget Reconciliation Act (OBRA)
    Act that reduced compensatin limits in qualified retirement programs
  354. Pay grades
    Used to group jobs that have approximately the same relative internal worth and are paid at the same rate or within the same pay range
  355. Person based pay
    Pay system in which employee characteristics rather than the job, determine pay
  356. Premium sharing
    Situation in which employee pays a portion of the required monthly premium for health care coverage
  357. Qualifying event
    Under the Consolidated Omnibus Budget Reconcilation Act, an event such as terminationfor reasons other than gross misconduct, that allows employees to continue their group health care coverage for a specific period of time
  358. Roth 401 (k)/403 (b) plans
    Plans that allow after tax contributions to existing 401 (k) or
  359. 403(b) plans
  360. Self-incured health care planb
    Health care plan in which the employer assumes the role of the insurance company and assumes some or all of the risk
  361. Simplified employee pension (SEP)
    Tax deferred account to which the self employed and employees of very small businesses can contribute
  362. Supplemental wages
    Pay beyond base salary or wages such as bonuses and commissions
  363. Top hat plan
    Nonqualified deferred compensation plan that provides retirement benefits to select group of management or highly compensated employees
  364. Utilization review
    Audit of health care use and charges to identify which benefits are used and to make certain that care is necessary and costs are in line
  365. Work related disability
    Physcical condition (accident or illness) that is caused, aggravated, precipitated, or accelerated by work activity or the work environment
  366. Benchmark jobs
    Jobs used as reference points when setting up a job classification system and when designing or modifying a pay structure
  367. Comparable worth
    Concept that states that jobs requiring comparable skills, effort, responsibility, and working conditins filled primarily by women should have the same job classification and salary as similar jobs filled by men
  368. Cost of living adjustment (COLA)
    Pay adjustment given to employees regardless of their performance or company profitability:: usually linked to inflation:: also referred to as standard percentage raise
  369. Differential pay
    Pay that is based on when the employee works (eg overtime pay, shift pay differential) or where the employee works:: also called variable pay
  370. Employee stock ownership plans (ESOPs)
    Stock bonus plans by which employees gain ownership in the organization for which they work
  371. Expatriates
    Persons who live in one country and are employed by an organization based in another country:: also called international assignees
  372. Financial Accounting Standards Board (FASB)
    Private body that decides how financial executives should report their firms financial information to their shareholders
  373. Gatekeeper
    Individual usually a primary care physician who is given control of patient access to specialists and services in a managed care organization
  374. Guide Chart Profile
    Point factor job evaluation system also know as the Hay plan
  375. Highly compensated employee (HCE)
    Determined by an array of issues such as business ownership (employee owns more than 5% of the firm) and or salary (for 2006 $100,000)
  376. Internal equity
    Occurs when people feel that performance or job differences result in corresponding differences in pay rates
  377. Lifetime maximum benefit
    Maximum dollar amount of covered medical expenses that a health of any covered person during that person's lifetime
  378. Medicare
    Social security administration program that provides medical care for the aged
  379. Nonduplication of benefits
    In health plans, requires a secondary carrier to reimburse only up to the level of reimbursement they would have paid
  380. Paid time off (PTO) bank
    Large bank of time comprising all of an employee's paid time off (ie vacation, sick leave, and holidays) that the employee can use as he or she sees fit
  381. Performance bonus
    One time payment made to an employee:: also called a lump sum increase (LSI)
  382. Portal to Portal Act
    Act that defines what is included as hours worked and is therefore compensable and a factor in calculating overtime
  383. Profit sharing plans
    Plans that distribute a portion of an organizations profits to its employees
  384. Reporting pay
    Pay provided to employees who report for work as scheduled but then find that no work is available
  385. Sarbanes Oxley Act (SOX)
    Requires adminstrators of defined contributions plans to provide notice of covered blackout periods:: provides whistleblower protection for employees
  386. Severence package
    Set of benefits provided to employees who are terminated for some reason other than cause
  387. Standard percentage raise
    Pay adjustment given to employees regardless of their performance or company profitability:: usually linked to inflation:: also referred to as a cost of living adjustment (COLA)
  388. Taxable wages
    All remuneration for services (including noncash benefits) that is taxable when paid
  389. Unemployment Compensation Amendments (UCA)
    Imposed a mandatory 20% federal income tax withholding requirement on most qualified retirement plan proceeds that a recipient does not roll over into another qualified retirement plan or individual retirement account
  390. Walsh-Healey Act
    Act that extended concept of prevailing wage to employers who manufacture or supply goods under government contracts and required time and a half
  391. Call back pay
    Pay that employees receive when they are called back for an extra shift in the same workday
  392. Consolidated Omnibus Budget Reconciliation Act (COBRA)
    Act that provides individuals and dependents who may lose medical coverage with opportunity to pay to continue coverage
  393. Davis Bacon Act
    Act that established prevailing wage and benefit requirements for contractors on federally funded construction projects
  394. Disability benefits
    Monthly benefits paid under social security to workers (and eligible dependents) younger than the Social Security retirement age if they have a disability
  395. Equal Pay Act (EPA)
    Act that prohibits wage discrimination by requiring equal pay for equal work
  396. External equity
    When an organizatin's pay rates are at least equal to market rates
  397. Flexible spending account (FSA)
    Type of section 125 plan that allows employees to use pretax dollars to pay for out of pocket health and dependent care expenses
  398. Golden handcuffs
    System of overlapping short and long term incentives to make it less likely that key employees will leave a company
  399. Hazard pay
    Pay earned by employees who work in an environment that is considered more risky from a safety or health point of view
  400. In loco parentis
    In place of a parent:: term used in expansion of FMLA coverage to employees who stand in place of a parent with day to day responsibilities to care for and financially support a child or who have a day to day responsibility to care for or financially support a person who stood in loco parentis for them
  401. International social security agreements
    Bilateral social security agreements that coordinate the US social security program with the comparable of other countries also know as totalization agreements
  402. Long term care insurance
    Insurance coverage that provides a daily monetary benefit to people who are chronically ill and who require living assistance either at home or in a residential facility
  403. Medicare supplement
    Health plan that coves specific expenses not covered by Medicare
  404. Nonqualified deferred compensation plan
    Income deferral benefit offered to a select group of management or highly compensated employees in the organization
  405. Parachutes
    Clauses written into executive contracts that provide special payments to key executives who might lose their position or be otherwise disadvantaged if another company took control of the organization through a merger or acquistion:: also known as golden parachutes
  406. Performance sharing plans
    organization wide incentive plans in which funds are made available for incentive awards based on predetermined criteria and standards
  407. Preferred provider organizations (PPO)
    Formed by an insurance company, an employer, or a group of employers who negotiate discounted fees with networks of health care providers in return, the employers guarantee a certain volume of patients
  408. Qualified deferred compensation plan
    Retirement benefit offered to all employees in the organization:: provides tax advantages and is protected under the Employee retirement income security act
  409. Revenue Act
    Act that added sections 125 and 401(k) to the tax code
  410. Section 125 benefit plans
    Written benefit plans maintained by the employer that allow employees to use pretax dollars to pay for certain qualified benefits
  411. Short term disability (STD) coverage
    Replaces a portion of lost income for a specified peirod of tiem for employees who are ill or have nonwork related injuries
  412. Sunset clause
    Identified time period and ending point that should be identified in incentive pay plans
  413. Time based differential pay
    Pay rates that are affected by when an employee works
  414. Uniformed Services Employment and Reemployment Rights Act (USERRA)
    Act that protects employment, reemployment, and retention rights for persons who voluntarily or involuntarily serve or have served in the uniformed services
  415. Welfare to work tax credit
    Income tax credit to encourage employers to hire long term welfare recipients
  416. 529 plans
    Qualified tuition plans that provide families a federal tax free way to save money for college
  417. Commission
    Payment made to salespeople, usually calcualted as a percentage of sales
  418. Copayment
    Specified percentage (typically 20% to 30%) of covered medical expenses that employee pays or fixed amount that a covered person pays each time he or she visits a physician
  419. Defined benefit plan
    plan that promises employee a retirement benefit amount based on a formula
  420. Employee Commuting Flexibility Act
    Amendment to the Portal to Portal act:: clarifies that commuting time is not paid working time
  421. Exclusive provider organization (EPO)
    Plan in which participants must use providers in the network of coverage or no payment will be made
  422. Family and Medical Leave Act (FMLA)
    Act that provides employees with up to 12 weeks of unpaid leave to care for family members or because of a serious health condition of the employee
  423. Fully insured health care plan
    Health care plan in which the employer pays a third party insurance carrier premiums that cover medical charges, administrative costs, sales commissions, taxes and profits
  424. Gross earnings
    Total earnings before taxes:: include regular wages plus additional earnings such as tips, bonuses and overtime pay
  425. Health reimbursement account (HRA)
    Employer funded plan that reimburses employees only for eligible and substantiated health care expenses
  426. indirect compensation
    Form of compensation commonly referred to as benefits
  427. Job evaluation
    Systematic determinatin of the relative worth of jobs within an organization
  428. Market based evaluation
    Method similar to job evaluation systems that evaluates jobs based upon their market value
  429. Money purchase plans
    Plans in which employers make mandatory paymenTS (a fixed percentage of an eligible employee's compensation) to a retirement plan
  430. Out of pocket maximum
    Stated amount out of pocket the insured can pay for medical costs in a 12 month period before copayments end
  431. Pay surveys
    Collect information on prevailing market rates and include topics such as incentive plans, overtime pay, base pay, and vacation and holiday practices
  432. Point factor method
    Most commonly used method of job evaluation:: it involves using specific factors to evaluate job worth
  433. Private letter rulings
    Rulings issued by the IRS to specific taxpayers or organizations that request an interpretation of the law
  434. Reasonable and customary
    Reimbursment standard used by insurance companies to determine how much providers should be paid for their services
  435. Salary
    Uniform amount of money paid to a worker regardless of how many hours are worked
  436. Serious health condition
    As defined in the FMLA, a condition that requires inpatient hospital, hospice, or residential care or continuting physician care
  437. Small Business Job Protection Act (SBJPA)
    Act that made changes to rules regarding the ability of tax exempt organizations to institute retirement plans modeled after 401(k) and IRA accounts and to the definition of highly compensated employees
  438. Tax and trade relief extension act
    Act that amends work opportunity tax credit to reduce employer federal tax liability
  439. Totalization agreements
    Bilateral social security agreements that coordinate the US social security program with the comparable programs of other countires:: also know as international social security agreements
  440. Vesting
    Process by which a retirement benefit becomes nonforfeitable
  441. Work week
    Any fixed, recurring period of 168 hours (7 days times 24 hours =168 hours)
  442. Broadbanding
    Comvining several salary grades or job classifications with narrow pay ranges into one band with a wider salary spread
  443. Compensable factors
    Reflect the dimenstions along which a job is perceived to add value to the organization:: these factors are used to determine which jobs are worth more than others
  444. Coverdell Education Savings Account (ESA)
    Trust created exclusively for the purpose of paying the qualified education expenses of a designated beneficiary
  445. Direct compensation
    Pay that is received by an employe , including base pay, differential pay, and incentive pay
  446. Employees
    Workers who are covered by FLSA regulations as determined by the IRS 20-Factor test
  447. Experience rating
    Rating system that bases insurance rates on claims history
  448. Flat rate pay
    Provides each incumbent of a job with the same rate of pay, regardless of performance or seniority:: also know as single rate pay
  449. Geographic differential pay
    Pay based on where an employee works
  450. Hay plan
    Point factor job evaluation system:: also known as the Guide Chart Profile
  451. Hourly wage
    Form of base pay that is dependent on the number of hours worked
  452. International assignees
    Persons who live in one country and are employed by an organization based in another country:: alos called expatriates
  453. Line of sight
    Concept that states that employees must be able to influence the attainment of a goal and see a direct result of their efforts in order for incentive pay plans to be effective
  454. Medicare carve-out
    Health plan where benefits are reduced for employees eligible for Medicare:: Medicare becomes the primary provider
  455. Nonexempt employees
    Employees covered under FLSA regulations, including overtime pay requirements
  456. Paired comparison method
    Job ranking method in which evaluator compares each job with every other job being evaluated
  457. Performance based pay
    Situation where an individual's performance is the basis for either the amount of timing of pay increases:: also called merit pay
  458. Preexisting conditions
    Medical conditions that existed before a health care policy is taken out
  459. Prudent person rule
    States that an ERISA plan fiduciary has legal and financial obligations not to take more risks when investing employee benefit progam funds than a reasonably knowledgeable, prudent investor would under similar circumstances
  460. Retirement Equity Act (REA)
    Act that provided certain legal protections for spousal beneficiaries of qualified retirement plans
  461. Savings Incentive Match Plan for Employees (SIMPLE)
    Retirement plan by which employees can contribute each year to a 401 (k) plan or IRA
  462. Shift Pay
    Refers to supplemental pay paid to employees who work less desirable hours such as second or thirt shirts
  463. Stop loss coverage
    Insurance policy that protects employers with partially self funded insurance plans by limiting individual and group wide claims
  464. Taxpayer Relief Act (TRA)
    Act that crated tax advantaged savings mechanisms
  465. Unemployment insurance
    Mandatory benefit program set up as part of the social security act designed to provide a subsistence payment to employees between jobs
  466. Weighted average
    Average of data that takes other factors such as the number of incumbents into account
  467. 401 (k) plans
    Plans that allow employees to make tax favored pay deferrals toward retirement savings through a payroll deduction plan
  468. Capitated health care plan
    Type of health care plan in which the physician is paid on a per capita (per head) basis rather than for actual treatment provided
  469. Consumer price index (CPI)
    Instrument that measures change over time for costs of a group of goods and services
  470. Deductible
    Initial amount of covered medical expenses an individual must pay before receiving paid benefits under a health care plan
  471. Draw
    Amount advanced on future commissions
  472. Equal work
    Work having equal skills, equal effort, equal responsibility and equal working conditions all performed at the same location
  473. Factor comparison method
    Job comparison method that ranks each job by each selected compensable factor and then identifies dollar values to develop a pay rate
  474. Frequency distribution
    Listing of grouped data, from lowest to highest
  475. Golden parachutes
    Clauses written into executive contracts that provide special payments to key executives who might lose their position or be otherwise disadvantaged if another company took control of the organization through a merger or acquisition:: also know as parachutes
  476. Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act (HIPAA)
    Act that made changes to improve health care coverage portability and accessibility and provide medical record privacy and security
  477. Incentive pay
    Form of direct compensation where employers pay for performance beyond normal expectations to motivate employees to perform at higher levels
  478. Involuntary deductions
    Payroll deductions such as tax levies and court ordered child support that an employee must pay
  479. Long term disability coveage (LTD)
    Replaces a portion of an employees lost income after short term disability coverage ends
  480. Mental Health Parity Act (MHPA)
    Act that addresses parity between mental health benefits and medical benefits
  481. Older Workers Benefit Protection Act (OWBPA)
    Act that amended age discriminatin in employment act to include all employee benefits:: also provided terminated employees with time to consider group termination or retirement programs and consult an attorney
  482. Pay compression
    Occurs when there is only a small difference in pay between employees regardless of their skills, experience or seniority:: also known as salary compression
  483. Perquisites
    Special privileges for executives that are usually noncash items
  484. Premium pay
    Extra pay for working holidays or vacations days
  485. Qualified domestic relations orders (QDROs)
    Create or recognize the right of an alternative payee to receive all or a portion of the benefits under a retirement plan
  486. Revenue rulings
    Rulings published by the IRS as general guidelines to all taxpayers or organizations
  487. Securities and exchange Act
    Act that regulated "inside trading"
  488. Sick leave
    Specified period of time during which employees who are ill or have nonwork related injuries receive their full salary
  489. Supplemental unemployment benefits (SUB)
    Benefits paid to unemployed workers beyond required government unemployment benefits
  490. Time based step rate pay
    System in which pay is based on longevity inthe job and pay increases occur on a predetermined schedule
  491. Unweighted average
    Raw average of data that gives equal weight to all factors with no regard to individual factors such as the number of incumbents or companies
  492. Work Opportunity tax Credit (WOTC)
    Income tax credit to encourage employers to hire people from a targeted group
  493. 457 plans
    Plans that allow employees of states, political subdivisions or agencies of states, and certain tax exempt organizations to defer receipt of wages
  494. Cliff vesting
    Requires participants to complete a specific number of years of service with an employer before they get any vested benefits, after which they are 100% vested
  495. Coordination of benefits
    Eliminates the duplication of payments when an employee, spouse or dependents have health coverage under two or more plans
  496. Deferred compensation
    Plan that provides income to employees at some future time as compensation for work performed now
  497. Emergency shift pay
    Extra pay that employees receive when they are called into work during an emergency (ie a power outage)
  498. Excess group term life insurance
    Amount of employer provided group term life insurance over $50,000
  499. Fair labor Standards act (FLSA)
    Act that regulates employee overtime status, overtime pay, child labor, minimum wage, record keeping and other adminstrative concerns
  500. Full cafeteria plan
    Type of Section 125 plan that allows employees to choose from a menu of benefits and allocate pretax dollars to pay for those benefits
  501. Green circle rates
    Situation where an employees pay is below the minimum of the range
  502. Health maintenance organizations (HMOs)
    Form of health care that provides services for a fixed period on a prepaid basis
  503. Independent contractors
    Workers who are not covered by FLSA regulations as determined by the IRS 20 Factor test
  504. Job classification
    Evaluation method that groups jobs into a predetermined number of grades or classifications, each having a class description to use for job comparisons
  505. Managed care
    General term for a medical plan that seeks to ensure that the treatments a person receives are medically necessary and provided in a cost effective manner
  506. Minimum wage
    Minimum hourly amount, determined by congress that nonexempt employees can be paid
  507. On call pay
    Pay that employees receive when they are on call but not actually working
  508. Pay ranges
    Set the upper and lower bounds of possible compensation for individuals whose jobs fall in a pay grade
  509. Physician hospital organizations (PHOs)
    Consist of hospital and physician practices that merge into vertically integrated structures
  510. Premium only plan (POP)
    Type of section 125 plan that allows employees to pay for certain qualified benefits with pretax dollars
  511. Rabbi trust
    Grantor trust designed to segregate nonqualified deferred compensation benefits from an employer's general accounts
  512. Roth IRA
    Account providing tax free income growth:: contributions are made with after tax dollars
  513. Seniority
    System that shows preference to employees with the longest service
  514. Single rate pay
    Provides each incumbent of a job with the same rate of pay, regardless of performance or seniority:: also know as flat rate pay
  515. Survivors benefits
    Monthly benefits paid under social security to eligible dependents of deceased workers
  516. Total rewards
    All forms of financial returns that employees receive from their employers
  517. Variable pay
    Pay that is based on when the employee works (ie overtime pay, shift pay differential) or where the employee works:: also called differential pay
  518. Workers compensation
    State insurance program designed to protect workers in cases of work related injuries or diseases related to workers employment
  519. Age Discrimination in Employment Act (ADEA)
    Act that determined that older workers may not be discriminated against by performance-based pay systems.
  520. Balance Billing
    Practice where an uncontracted medical provider bills a patient for all charges not paid for by the patient's insurance plan, even if those charges are above the plan's usual and customary rate or are considered medically unnecessary.
  521. Dual-Ladder Career Progression
    Allows employees to advance via either a management or technical track within an organization.
  522. General Pay Increase
    Pay increase given to all employees (or a class of employees such as office or production workers) based on local competitive market requirements:: awarded regardless of employee performance.
  523. Genetic Information Nondiscrimination Act
    Act that prohibits discrimination against individuals on the basis of their genetic information in both employment and health care.
  524. Inpatriates
    Traditional term used to describe employees brought in from another country to work in the headquarters country for a specified period.
  525. Median
    Middle point above and below which 50% of scores in a set of data lie.
  526. Mode
    Value that occurs most frequently in a set of data.
  527. Modified-Duty Programs
    Offered to employees who are on leave for injuries under FMLA:: job tasks are modified to meet the employee's restrictions.
  528. Pension Protection Act
    Act that changes the laws that affect defined benefit plans, defined contribution plans, individual retirement accounts, and other issues related to retirement planning.
  529. Repatriates
    Traditional term referring to employees who have returned home from an international assignment
  530. ADDIE model
    Five-step instructional design process that governs the development of human resource development programs.
  531. Analysis
    Level of learning characterized by understanding information to the level of being able to break it down and explain how it fits together.
  532. Andragogy
    Study of how adults learn
  533. Application
    Level of learning characterized by ability to use learned information in a new situation
  534. Apprenticeship
    Relates to technical skills training:: often a partnership between employers and unions.
  535. Aptitude
    Ability to learn information or acquire a skill.
  536. Asynchronous learning
    Type of e-learning in which participants access
  537. information at different times and in different places.
  538. Auditory learners
    People who learn best by relying on their sense of hearing.
  539. Bias
    Occurs when an appraiser's values, beliefs, or prejudices distort performance ratings.
  540. Blended learning
    Planned approach to learning that includes a combination of methods such as classroom, e-learning, self-paced study, and performance support such as job aids or coaching.
  541. Career development
    Process by which individuals progress through a series of stages in their careers, each of which is characterized by relatively unique issues, themes, and tasks.
  542. Career planning
    Actions and activities that individuals perform in order to give direction to their work life.
  543. Cause-and-effect diagram
    Diagram that maps out a list of factors that are thought to affect a problem or a desired outcome.
  544. Central tendency error
    Error that occurs when an appraiser rates all employees within a narrow range, regardless of differences in actual performance.
  545. Check sheets
    Simple visual tools used to collect and analyze data.
  546. Competencies
    Set of behaviors encompassing skills, knowledge, abilities, and personal attributes that are critical to successful work accomplishment.
  547. Comprehension
    Level of learning characterized by ability to translate or interpret information.
  548. Contrast error
    Error that occurs when an employee's rating is based on how his or her performance compares to that of another employee rather than objective standards.
  549. Control chart
    Chart that illustrates variations from normal in a situation over time.
  550. Copyright
    Form of protection provided by the U.S. government to authors of "original works" to exclude others from printing or otherwise duplicating, distributing, or vending copies of his/her literary, artistic, and other creative expressions
  551. Copyright Act
    Act that defines the protection provided to authors of "original works" to exclude others from printing or otherwise duplicating, distributing, or vending copies of his or her literary, artistic, and other creative expressions,
  552. including through the various means of technology
  553. Core competencies
    Skills, knowledge, and abilities that employees must possess in order to successfully perform job functions that are essential to business perations
  554. Decreasing returns
    Type of learning curve in which the amount of learning or skill level increases rapidly at first and then the rate of improvement slows
  555. Developmental activities
    Activities that focus on preparing employees for future responsibilities while increasing their capacity to perform their current jobs
  556. Distance learning
    Process of delivering educational or instructional programs to locations away from a classroom or site.
  557. Diversity
    Differences in characteristics of people:: can involve personality, work style, race, age, ethnicity, gender, religion, education, functional level at work, etc.
  558. Diversity training
    Training designed to inform and educate senior
  559. management and staff about diversity and to develop concrete skills among staff that will facilitate enhanced productivity and communications among all employees.
  560. Dual-ladder programs
    Career development programs that identify meaningful career paths for professional and technical people whose preferences may be outside traditional management roles.
  561. E-learning
    Delivery of formal and informal training and educational materials, processes, and programs via the use of electronic media.
  562. Emotional intelligence (EI)
    Ability of an individual to be sensitive to and
  563. understanding of the emotions of others and to manage his or her own emotions and impulses.
  564. Evaluation
    Level of learning characterized by ability to make judgments.
  565. Executive coaching
    Coaching typically conducted by a third-party vendor to support managers in mastering the fundamental principles and practices for achieving extraordinary results and empowering staff success.
  566. External coaching
    Coaching typically available to professional, exempt, and/or high-potential employees that is done in a private and confidential relationship with a trained or certified consultant/coach.
  567. Extrinsic rewards
    Rewards such as pay, benefits, bonuses, promotions, achievement awards, time off, more freedom and autonomy, special assignments, etc.
  568. Fair use
    Provision of the Copyright Act that allows the use of copyrighted work in certain circumstances.
  569. Fast-track programs
    Career development programs that involve identifying a pool of potential leaders and rapidly increasing their leadership skill development.
  570. Glass ceiling
    Strong but invisible career barrier that sometimes exists for minorities and women.
  571. Goal
    Clear statement, usually in one sentence, of the purpose and intent of a human resource development program.
  572. High-context culture
    Society or group where people have close connections over a long period of time and where many aspects of behavior are not made explicit, because most members know what to do and think from years of interaction.
  573. Histogram
    Graphic representation of the distribution of a single type of measurement:: data is represented by a series of rectangles of varying heights.
  574. Human resource development (HRD)
    Set of systematic and planned activities designed by an organization to provide its members with the necessary skills to meet current and future job demands.
  575. Increasing returns
    Type of learning curve in which progress is initially slow because basics are being learned but then performance takes off after the initial learning phase.
  576. Internal coaching
    Consists of ongoing meetings between supervisors and employees to discuss the employee's career goals.
  577. Intrinsic rewards
    Meaningful work, good feedback on performance, autonomy, and other factors that lead to high levels of satisfaction in the job.
  578. Kinesthetic learners
    People who learn best through a hands-on approach:: also called tactile learners.
  579. Knowledge
    Level of learning characterized by ability to recall specific facts.
  580. Knowledge management (KM)
    Process of creating, acquiring, sharing, and managing knowledge to augment individual and organizational performance.
  581. Leadership
    Ability of an individual to influence a group or another individual toward the achievement of goals and results.
  582. Learning management system (LMS)
    System that holds course content information and has the capability of tracking and managing employee course registrations, career development, and other employee development activities.
  583. Learning objects (LOs)
    Learning elements that may be reused in a variety of contexts:: examples include animated graphics, job aids, and print modules.
  584. Learning organization
    Organization characterized by a capability to adapt to changes in environment.
  585. Learning styles
    Ways individuals learn and process ideas.
  586. Leniency errors
    Errors that are the result of appraisers who don't want to give low scores.
  587. Low-context culture
    Society where people tend to have many connections but of shorter duration and where behavior and beliefs may need to be spelled out explicitly so that those coming into the cultural environment know how to behave.
  588. Management
    Directing day-to-day organizational operations
  589. Mentoring
    Developmentally oriented relationship between two individuals.
  590. Motivation
    Factors that initiate, direct, and sustain human behavior over time.
  591. Needs assessment
    Process by which an organization's needs are identified in order to help the organization accomplish its objectives:: also called needs analysis
  592. Objectives
    Results that participants will be able to perform at the end of a human resource development program.
  593. On-boarding
    Process of new employee assimilation into the
  594. organization, which often lasts up to six months or a year.
  595. On-the-job training (OJT)
    Training provided to employees at the work site utilizing demonstration and performance of job tasks.
  596. Organizational culture
    Shared attitudes and perceptions in an organization.
  597. Organizational development (OD)
    Process of enhancing the effectiveness of an organization and the well-being of its members through planned interventions.
  598. Organizational learning
    Certain types of learning activities or processes that may occur at any one of several levels in an organization.
  599. Orientation
    Initial phase of employee training that covers job
  600. responsibilities and procedures, organizational goals and strategies, and company policies.
  601. Pareto chart
    Vertical bar graph on which bar height reflects frequency or impact of causes
  602. Patent
    Gives its owner the right to exclude others from making, using, or selling anything that embodies or uses an invention.
  603. Pedagogy
    Study of the education of children.
  604. Performance appraisal
    Process that measures the degree to which an employee accomplishes work requirements.
  605. Performance management
    Process of maintaining or improving employee job performance through the use of performance assessment tools, coaching, and counseling as well as providing continuous feedback
  606. Performance standards
    Expectations of management translated into behaviors and results that employees can deliver.
  607. Pilot programs
    Human resource development programs offered initially in a controlled environment with a segment of the target
  608. audience.
  609. Plateau curve
    Type of learning curve in which learning is fast at first but then flattens out with no apparent progress.
  610. Plateaued career
    Career state of employees who are no longer considered promotable
  611. Primacy error
    Occurs when an appraiser gives more weight to an employee's earlier performance and discounts recent occurrences.
  612. Process-flow analysis
    Diagram of the steps involved in a process.
  613. Public domain
    Status of a work when copyright protection ends:: in general, copyright protection covers the life of the author plus 70 years.
  614. Age Discrimination in Employment Act (ADEA)
    Act that prohibits discrimination in employment for persons age 40 and over.
  615. Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA)
    Act that prohibits discrimination against a qualified individual with a disability because of his/her disability.
  616. Career Management
    Preparing, implementing, and monitoring employees' career paths, with a primary focus on the goals of the organization.
  617. Expatriation
    Process of sending employees abroad and supporting their ability to adapt to cultural changes and complete their international assignment.
  618. Halo Effect
    Occurs when an employee is extremely competent in one area and is therefore rated high in all categories.
  619. Horn Effect
    Occurs when an employee receives an overall low rating because of one weakness.
  620. Job Enlargement
    Broadening the scope of a job by expanding the number of different tasks to be performed.
  621. Job Enrichment
    Increases the depth of a job by adding responsibility for planning, organizing, controlling, and evaluation.
  622. Job Rotation
    Movement between comparable but different jobs.
  623. Outplacement Programs
    Programs developed to assist displaced employees in finding jobs and adjusting to change.
  624. Recency Error
    Error that occurs when an appraiser gives more weight to recent occurrences and discounts an employee's earlier performance during the appraisal.
  625. Repatriation
    Reintegrating employees into their home-country operations following an international assignment.
  626. Replacement Planning
    "Snapshot" assessment of the availability of qualified backup for key positions.
  627. Retention
    Ability to keep talented employees in an organization.
  628. Reusable Learning Objects (RLOs)
    Learning elements that may be reused in a variety of contexts:: examples include animated graphics, job aids, and print modules.
  629. Scatter Diagram
    Illustration that depicts possible relationships between two variables.
  630. Six Sigma
    Disciplined, data-driven approach and methodology for eliminating defects.
  631. S-Shaped Curve
    Type of learning curve in which learning occurs in a series of increasing or decreasing returns:: usually seen when an employee is attempting to learn a difficult task that also requires specific insight.
  632. Strictness
    Error that occurs when an appraiser believes standards are too low and inflates the standards in an effort to them meaningful.
  633. Subject Matter Expert (SME)
    Person who is well versed in the content of a human resource development program.
  634. Succession Planning
    Process of systematically identifying, assessing, and developing leadership talent.
  635. SWOT Analysis
    Process for evaluating an organization's current strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats.
  636. Synchronous Learning
    Type of e-learning in which participants interact together in real time.
  637. Synthesis
    Level of learning at which the learner is able to respond to new situations and determine trouble-shooting techniques and solutions.
  638. Talent Management
    Development and integration of HR processes that attract, develop, engage, and retain the knowledge, skills, and abilities of employees that will meet current and future business needs.
  639. Theory of Constraints (TOC)
    Systems management philosophy that states that every organization is hindered by constraints that come from its internal policies.
  640. Title VII, Civil Rights Act of 1964
    Prohibits discrimination or segregation based on race, color, national origin, religion, and gender in all terms and conditions of employment.
  641. Total Quality Management (TQM)
    Strategic, integrated management system for achieving customer satisfaction that involves all managers and employees and uses quantitative methods to continuously improve an organization's processes.
  642. Trademark Act
    Act that provides federal protection for trademarks and service marks.
  643. Train-ability
    Readiness to learn, combining students' level of ability and motivation with their perceptions of the work environment.
  644. Training
    Process of providing knowledge, skills, and abilities (KSAs) specific to a task or job.
  645. Transactional Leadership
    Leadership style that offers the promise of reward or the threat of discipline to motivate employees.
  646. Transfer of Training
    Effective and continuing on-the-job application of the knowledge and skills gained during a learning experience.
  647. Transformational Leadership
    Leadership style that motivates employees by inspiring them to join in a mutually satisfying achievement.
  648. Uniform Guidelines on Employee Selection Procedures
    Federal guidelines that require employers to show that they are not discriminating against or creating adverse impact on a group of applicants or employees, including selecting participants for training.
  649. Uniformed Services Employment and Reemployment Rights Act (USERRA)
    Act that requires benefit continuation and crediting of service while an employee is on military active duty.
  650. U.S. Patent Act
    Act that established U.S. Patent and Trademark Office
  651. Vestibule Training
    Offline, instructor-led training designed to bring a learner up to production standards before assuming online responsibilities.
  652. Visual Learners
    People who learn best by relying on their sense of sight.
  653. ADA Amendments Act
    Amendments to Americans with Disabilities Act covering mitigating measures and definition of individuals regarded as having a disability.
  654. Adverse impact
    Occurs when the selection rate for a protected class is less than 80% of the rate for the class with the highest selection rate:: also known as disparate impact.
  655. Affirmative action (AA)
    Practice in which employers identify conspicuous
  656. imbalances in their workforce and take positive steps to correct under-representation of protected classes.
  657. Affirmative action plans (AAPs)
    Plans that focus on the hiring, training, promoting,
  658. compensating, and terminating of protected classes.
  659. Age Discrimination in Employment
  660. Act (ADEA)
    Act that prohibits discrimination in employment for
  661. persons age 40 and over except where age is a bona fide occupational qualification.
  662. Albemarle Paper v. Moody
    1975 court ruling that items used to validate employment requirements must be job-related.
  663. Alternative staffing
    Use of alternative recruiting sources and workers who are not regular employees:: also known as flexible staffing.
  664. Americans with Disabilities Act
  665. (ADA)
    Act that prohibits discrimination against a qualified
  666. individual with a disability because of his/her disability.
  667. Aptitude tests
    Tests that measure the general ability or capacity to learn or acquire a new skill.
  668. Assessment centers
    Method of evaluating candidates using content-valid work samples of a job:: typically for managerial positions.
  669. Availability analysis
    Analysis in which organization considers internal and
  670. external availability in determining theoretical availability of minorities and women for established job groups.
  671. Behavioral interview
    Type of interview that focuses on how applicant
  672. previously handled real work situations.
  673. Bona fide occupational qualification
  674. (BFOQ)
    Situation in which gender, religion, or national origin is reasonably necessary to carrying out a particular job function in the normal operations of a business or enterprise.
  675. City of Richmond v. J. A. Croson
  676. Company
    1989 Court ruling that the numerical quota system of
  677. Richmond, Virginia, was unconstitutional because the city had not laid the proper groundwork and had not adequately identified or documented discrimination.
  678. Civil Rights Act of 1964
    First comprehensive U.S. law making it illegal to
  679. discriminate on the basis of race, color, religion, sex, or national origin.
  680. Civil Rights Act of 1991
    Act that expands the possible damage awards available to victims of intentional discrimination to include compensatory and punitive damages:: gives plaintiffs in cases of alleged intentional discrimination the right to a jury trial.
  681. Closed questions
    Questions that can usually be answered with yes or no.
  682. Co-employment
    Situation in which an organization shares joint
  683. responsibility and liability for their alternative workers with an alternative staffing supplier:: also known as joint employment.
  684. Cognitive ability tests
    Tests that assess skills the candidate has already learned.
  685. Competency model
    Set of job competencies that together make up a profile for success for a particular job.
  686. Compliance evaluation
    Evaluation that requires an organization to provide details on and documentation of its affirmative action plan.
  687. Concurrent validity
    Type of criterion-related validity determined by relating the test scores of a group of test takers who take a test (Test A) to some other criterion measure (Test B) that is administered at the same time.
  688. Congressional Accountability Act
    Act that requires that federal employee relations legislation enacted by Congress apply to employees of Congress.
  689. Construct validity
    Extent to which a selection device measures the theoretical construct or trait (e.g., intelligence or mechanical comprehension).
  690. Constructive discharge
    Occurs when an employer makes working conditions so intolerable that an employee has no choice but to resign.
  691. Consumer Credit Protection Act
    Act that limits the amount of wages that can be garnished or withheld in any one week by an employer to satisfy creditors.
  692. Content validity
    Degree to which an interview, test, or other selection
  693. device measures the knowledge, skills, abilities, or other
  694. qualifications that are part of the job.
  695. Criterion-related validity
    Refers to the link between a selection device and job
  696. performance.
  697. Cultural noise
    Failure to recognize responses of a candidate that are
  698. socially acceptable rather than factual.
  699. Delphi technique
    Forecasting technique that progressively collects
  700. information from a group without physically assembling
  701. the contributors.
  702. Directive interview
    Type of interview in which interviewer poses specific
  703. questions to a candidate and keeps control.
  704. Disability
    Physical or mental impairment that substantially limits
  705. major life activities.
  706. Disparate impact
    Occurs when the selection rate for a protected class is less
  707. than 80% of the rate for the class with the highest selection
  708. rate:: also known as adverse impact.
  709. Disparate treatment
    Occurs when protected classes are intentionally treated
  710. differently from other employees or are evaluated by
  711. different standards.
  712. Ellerth v. Burlington Northern
  713. Industries
    Court ruling that distinguished between supervisor
  714. harassment that results in tangible employment action and
  715. supervisor harassment that does not.
  716. Employee Polygraph Protection Act
    Act that makes it unlawful for employers to use polygraphs
  717. in employment decisions except for a few narrowly
  718. defined exceptions for "security-sensitive" positions.
  719. Employment branding
    Process of positioning an organization as an "employer of
  720. choice" in the labor market.
  721. Employment contract
    Agreement between an employer and an employee that
  722. explains the employment relationship.
  723. Employment offer
    Makes the hiring decision official:: should immediately
  724. follow the final decision to hire a candidate:: formally
  725. communicated through offer letter.
  726. Employment practices liability
  727. insurance (EPLI)
    Protects an employer against claims by workers that their
  728. legal rights as employees of the company have been
  729. violated.
  730. Essential function
    Primary job duty that a qualified individual must be able to
  731. perform, either with or without accommodation:: a function
  732. may be considered essential because it is required in a job
  733. or because it is highly specialized.
  734. Executive search firms
    External recruiting method:: firms seek out candidates,
  735. usually for executive, managerial, or professional
  736. positions.
  737. Exit interview
    Interview conducted when an employee is terminating with
  738. a company in which employee is asked to share views on
  739. selected issues.
  740. Expatriates
    Collective term for employees sent abroad to work in a
  741. country other than where they live.
  742. Fair and Accurate Credit
  743. Transactions Act (FACT)
    Act that provides some relief to employers using third
  744. parties to conduct workplace investigations.
  745. Fair Credit Reporting Act (FCRA)
    Act that protects privacy of background information and
  746. ensures that information supplied is accurate.
  747. Faragher v. City of Boca Raton
    Court ruling that distinguished between supervisor
  748. harassment that results in tangible employment action and
  749. supervisor harassment that does not.
  750. First-impression error
    Type of interviewer bias in which interviewer makes snap
  751. judgments and lets first impression (either positive or
  752. negative) cloud the interview.
  753. Flexible staffing
    Use of alternative recruiting sources and workers who are
  754. not regular employees:: also known as alternative staffing.
  755. Garnishment
    Occurs when a creditor obtains a court order requiring an
  756. employer to attach an employee's earnings in order to pay
  757. back a debt.
  758. General Dynamics Land Systems,
  759. Inc., v. Cline
    Case in which Supreme Court held that the Age
  760. Discrimination in Employment Act does not protect
  761. younger workers, even if they are over age 40, from
  762. workplace decisions that favor older workers.
  763. Genetic Information
  764. Nondiscrimination Act (GINA)
    Act that prohibits discrimination against individuals on the
  765. basis of their genetic information in both employment and
  766. health care.
  767. Gratz v. Bollinger
    Case in which Supreme Court held that University of
  768. Michigan's undergraduate admission program was not
  769. sufficiently "narrowly tailored" to consider race as a factor
  770. in admission decisions in order to achieve goal of a diverse
  771. student body.
  772. Griggs v. Duke Power
    1971 case that recognized adverse impact discrimination.
  773. Group interview
    Type of interview where multiple job candidates are
  774. interviewed by one or more interviewers at the same time
  775. or where multiple people in an organization interview a
  776. single job candidate.
  777. Grutter v. Bollinger
    Case in which Supreme Court held that University of
  778. Michigan's law school admission program was sufficiently
  779. "narrowly tailored" to consider race as a factor in
  780. admission decisions in order to achieve goal of a diverse
  781. student body.
  782. Halo effect
    Type of interviewer bias in which interviewer allows one
  783. strong point in candidate's favor to overshadow all other
  784. information.
  785. Harris v. Forklift Systems, Inc.
    Court ruling that established "reasonable person" standard
  786. in a sexual harassment case.
  787. Honesty/integrity tests
    Measures of applicants' propensity toward undesirable
  788. behaviors such as lying, stealing, taking drugs, or abusing
  789. alcohol.
  790. Horn effect
    Type of interviewer bias in which the interviewer allows
  791. one strong point that works against candidate to
  792. overshadow all other information.
  793. Host-country nationals (HCNs)
    Employees hired for jobs in their own countries:: also
  794. known as local nationals.
  795. Hostile environment harassment
    Occurs when sexual or other discriminatory conduct is so
  796. severe and pervasive that it interferes with an individual's
  797. performance:: creates an intimidating, threatening, or
  798. humiliating work environment:: or perpetuates a situation
  799. that affects the employee's psychological well-being.
  800. Immigration Reform and Control
  801. Act (IRCA)
    Act that prohibits discrimination against job applicants on
  802. the basis of national origin or citizenship:: establishes
  803. penalties for hiring illegal aliens and requires employers to
  804. establish each employee's identity and eligibility to work.
  805. Inpatriates
    Traditional term used to describe employees brought in
  806. from another country to work in the headquarters country
  807. for a specified period.
  808. International assignee
    All-encompassing term used to describe anyone on an
  809. international assignment.
  810. Involuntary termination
    When employers decide to discharge particular employees
  811. for cause (e.g., poor performance, violations of employer
  812. policy).
  813. Job analysis
    Systematic study of jobs to determine what activities and
  814. responsibilities they include, relative importance and
  815. relationship with other jobs, personal qualifications
  816. necessary for performance, and conditions under which
  817. work is performed.
  818. Job applicant
    According to EEO regulations, anyone who expresses an
  819. interest in employment, regardless of whether that person
  820. meets the employer's minimum qualifications for the job.
  821. Job bidding
    Internal recruiting method that allows employees to
  822. indicate an interest in a position before one becomes
  823. available.
  824. Job competencies
    Knowledge, skills, and abilities (KSAs) and other personal
  825. characteristics that work together to produce outstanding
  826. performance in a given area of responsibility.
  827. Job description
    Summarizes most important features of a job, including
  828. required tasks, knowledge, skills, abilities, responsibilities,
  829. and reporting structure.
  830. Job group analysis
    Part of affirmative action plan that lists all job titles that
  831. comprise each job group having similar content and
  832. responsibilities, wage rates, and opportunities for
  833. advancement.
  834. Job posting
    Internal recruiting method that allows current employees
  835. the chance to respond to announcements of positions.
  836. Job specification
    Spells out qualifications necessary for an incumbent to be
  837. able to perform a job.
  838. Jobs for Veterans Act (JVA)
    Amendment to Vietnam Era Veterans Readjustment
  839. Assistance Act:: deals with discrimination against certain
  840. veterans by the U.S. government and federal contractors.
  841. Johnson v. Santa Clara County
  842. Transportation Agency
    Court ruling that endorsed using gender as one factor in an
  843. employment decision if underrepresentation is shown and
  844. if the affirmative action plan is not a quota system.
  845. Joint employment
    Situation in which an organization shares joint
  846. responsibility and liability for their alternative workers
  847. with an alternative staffing supplier:: also known as coemployment.
  848. Judgmental forecasts
    Use of information from past and present to predict future
  849. conditions.
  850. Kolstad v. American Dental
  851. Association
    Case in which Supreme Court held that the availability of
  852. punitive damages depends on the motive of the
  853. discriminator rather than the nature of the conduct.
  854. Lilly Ledbetter Fair Pay Act
    Act that creates a rolling time frame for filing wage
  855. discrimination claims and expands plaintiff field beyond
  856. employee who was discriminated against.
  857. Local nationals
    Employees hired for jobs in their own countries:: also
  858. known as host-country nationals (HCNs).
  859. McDonnell Douglas Corp. v. Green
    Case that established criteria for disparate treatment.
  860. McKennon v. Nashville Banner
  861. Publishing Co.
    Case in which Supreme Court held that evidence of
  862. misconduct acquired after the decision to terminate cannot
  863. free an employer from liability, even if the misconduct
  864. would have justified terminating the employee.
  865. Meritor Savings Bank v. Vinson
    Court ruling that first held that sexual harassment violates
  866. Title VII of the Civil Rights Act of 1964 regardless of
  867. whether it is quid pro quo or hostile environment
  868. harassment.
  869. Multiple linear regression
    Statistical method that can be used to project future
  870. demand:: several variables are utilized.
  871. Negative emphasis
    Type of interviewer bias that involves rejecting a candidate
  872. on the basis of a small amount of negative information.
  873. Nominal group technique
    Group of individuals who meet face-to-face to forecast
  874. ideas and assumptions and prioritize issues.
  875. Nondirective interview
    Type of interview in which interviewer asks open
  876. questions and provides general direction but allows
  877. applicant to guide process.
  878. Offer letter
    Document that formally communicates the employment
  879. offer, making the hiring decision official.
  880. Oncale v. Sundowner Offshore
  881. Service, Inc.
    Court ruling that same-gender harassment is actionable
  882. under Title VII.
  883. On-call workers
    Employees who report to work only when needed.
  884. Open question
    Type of question that typically begins with what, where,
  885. why, when, or how.
  886. Organizational display
    Part of an affirmative action plan that provides a graphical
  887. presentation of the organizational units, including their
  888. interrelationships.
  889. Organizational exit
    Process of managing the way people leave an organization.
  890. Organizational profile
    Depicts the staffing pattern of a facility to determine if
  891. barriers to equal employment opportunity exist within any
  892. organizational unit.
  893. Organizational unit
    Any discrete component of an organization in which there
  894. is a level of supervision responsible and accountable for
  895. the selection, compensation, etc., of employees within the
  896. unit.
  897. Outplacement
    Systematic process by which a laid-off or terminated
  898. employee is counseled in the techniques of career selfappraisal
  899. and in securing a new job that is appropriate to
  900. his or her talents and needs.
  901. Outsourcing
    Flexible staffing option in which an independent company
  902. with expertise in operating a specific function contracts
  903. with a company to assume full operational responsibility
  904. for the function.
  905. Panel interview
    Type of interview in which structured questions are spread
  906. across a group:: individual who is most competent in the
  907. relevant area usually asks the question.
  908. Parent-country nationals (PCNs)
    Citizens of an organization's headquarters country who
  909. reside and work abroad with the intent of returning to the
  910. home country.
  911. Patterned interview
    Type of interview in which interviewer asks each applicant
  912. questions that are from the same knowledge, skill, or
  913. ability area:: also called targeted interview.
  914. Payrolling
    When a company needing help identifies specific people
  915. and refers them to a staffing firm, which employs them and
  916. assigns them to work at the company.
  917. Pennsylvania State Police v. Suders
    Case in which Supreme Court ruled on the use of the
  918. affirmative defense in a constructive discharge claim for
  919. an employer whose supervisors are charged with
  920. harassment.
  921. PERM (Program Electronic Review
  922. Management)
    Streamlined process for obtaining labor certification for
  923. foreign nationals seeking permanent residence through
  924. their employment.
  925. Personality tests
    Tests that measure person's social interaction skills and
  926. patterns of behavior.
  927. Placement goals
    Objectives or targets in an affirmative action plan that are
  928. set when the percentage of minorities or women in a job
  929. group is less than reasonably expected given their
  930. availability.
  931. Polygraph test
    Test that measures respiration, blood pressure, and
  932. perspiration while person is asked a series of questions::
  933. outcome is a diagnostic opinion about honesty.
  934. Predictive validity
    Type of criterion-related validity:: degree to which
  935. predictions made by a test are confirmed by the later
  936. behavior of test takers.
  937. Pregnancy Discrimination Act
    Act that prohibits discrimination on the basis of pregnancy,
  938. childbirth, or related conditions.
  939. Prescreening interview
    Type of interview that is useful when an organization has a
  940. high volume of applicants for a job and face-to-face
  941. interviews are needed to judge prequalification factors.
  942. Prima facie
    Latin term for "on first view" or "at first appearance."
  943. Privacy Act
    Act that protects the employment records of federal
  944. government employees from disclosure without prior
  945. authorization.
  946. Protected class
    People who are covered under a federal or state
  947. antidiscrimination law.
  948. Psychomotor tests
    Tests that require a candidate to demonstrate a minimum
  949. degree of strength, physical dexterity, and coordination in
  950. a specialized skill area.
  951. Quid pro quo harassment
    Type of sexual harassment that occurs when an employee
  952. is forced to choose between giving in to a superior's sexual
  953. demands and forfeiting an economic benefit such as a pay
  954. increase, a promotion, or continued employment.
  955. Quota
    Involves hiring and promoting a fixed number of
  956. individuals based on race, gender, or other protected-class
  957. standards that must be met.
  958. Realistic job preview (RJP)
    Part of the selection process that provides an applicant
  959. with honest and complete information about a job and the
  960. work environment.
  961. Reasonable accommodation
    Modifying job application process, work environment, or
  962. circumstances under which job is performed to enable a
  963. qualified individual with a disability to be considered for
  964. the job and perform its essential functions.
  965. Regents of the University of
  966. California v. Bakke
    Court ruling that colleges and universities could
  967. legitimately consider race as a factor in the admissions
  968. process.
  969. Rehabilitation Act
    Act that prohibits discrimination based on physical or
  970. mental disabilities.
  971. Repatriates
    Traditional term referring to employees who have returned
  972. home from an international assignment.
  973. Repetitive interview
    Type of interview in which interviewer asks every
  974. applicant the same questions:: also called a structured
  975. interview.
  976. R�sum�
    Document prepared by job candidate (or professional hired
  977. by candidate) to highlight candidate's strengths and
  978. experience.
  979. Retaliatory discharge
    Result of an employer punishing an employee for engaging
  980. in activities protected by the law (e.g., filing a
  981. discrimination charge, opposing unlawful employer
  982. practices).
  983. Retention
    Ability to keep talented employees in an organization.
  984. School Board of Nassau v. Arline
    Supreme Court ruling that persons with contagious
  985. diseases could be covered by the Rehabilitation Act of
  986. 1973.
  987. School-to-work programs
    Allow organizations to partner with communities and
  988. schools to help develop the skilled workforce they will
  989. need for the future.
  990. Selection
    Process of hiring the most suitable candidate for a vacant
  991. position.
  992. Selection interview
    Interview designed to probe areas of interest to interviewer
  993. in order to determine how well a job candidate meets the
  994. needs of the organization.
  995. Sexual harassment
    Unwelcome sexual advances, requests for sexual favors,
  996. and other verbal or physical conduct of a sexual nature.
  997. Simple linear regression
    Projection of future demand based on a past relationship::
  998. involves a single variable.
  999. Simulations
    Representations of real situations:: give organizations the
  1000. opportunity to speculate as to what would happen if certain
  1001. courses of action were pursued.
  1002. Situational interview
    Type of interview in which interviewer asks hypothetical
  1003. questions designed to elicit stories and examples that
  1004. demonstrate the applicant's skills and qualifications.
  1005. Skill banks
    Computerized talent or skill inventories that can furnish a
  1006. list of qualified people.
  1007. Skill tracking systems
    Computerized talent or skill inventories that can furnish a
  1008. list of qualified people.
  1009. Smith v. Jackson, Mississippi
    Case in which Supreme Court held that Age
  1010. Discrimination in Employment Act authorizes recovery on
  1011. a disparate impact theory but with narrower scope than that
  1012. provided under Title VII.
  1013. St. Mary's Honor Center v. Hicks
    Court ruling that Title VII plaintiff must show that
  1014. discrimination was the real reason for an employer's
  1015. actions.
  1016. Staffing
    HR function that identifies organizational human capital
  1017. needs and attempts to provide an adequate supply of
  1018. qualified individuals for jobs in an organization.
  1019. State (public) employment agencies
    Agencies that provide employee screening, testing, and
  1020. referral at no cost to the employer.
  1021. Stereotyping
    Type of interviewer bias that involves forming generalized
  1022. opinions about how people of a given gender, religion, or
  1023. race appear, think, act, feel, or respond.
  1024. Stress interview
    Type of interview in which interviewer assumes an
  1025. aggressive posture to see how a candidate responds to
  1026. stressful situations.
  1027. Structured interview
    Type of interview in which interviewer asks every
  1028. applicant the same questions:: also called a repetitive
  1029. interview.
  1030. Substance abuse tests
    Measures intended to ensure a drug-free workplace.
  1031. Targeted interview
    Type of interview in which interviewer asks each applicant
  1032. questions that are from the same knowledge, skill, or
  1033. ability area:: also called patterned interview.
  1034. Taxman v. Board of Education of
  1035. Piscataway
    Court ruling that nonremedial affirmative action plan
  1036. cannot form the basis for deviating from the
  1037. antidiscrimination mandate of Title VII.
  1038. Team interview
    Type of interview used in situations where the position
  1039. relies heavily on team cooperation:: supervisors,
  1040. subordinates, and peers are usually part of the process.
  1041. Third-country nationals (TCNs)
    Traditional term used to describe employees who are
  1042. citizens of countries other than where they work or where
  1043. the organization's headquarters resides.
  1044. Trend and ratio analyses
    Use of statistics to determine whether relationships exist
  1045. between two variables.
  1046. Turnover
    Annualized formula that tracks number of separations and
  1047. total number of workforce employees for each month.
  1048. Uniform Guidelines on Employee
  1049. Selection Procedures
    Procedural document designed to assist employers in
  1050. complying with federal regulations prohibiting
  1051. discrimination.
  1052. United Steelworkers v. Weber
    Court ruling dealing with reverse discrimination charges::
  1053. upheld that Title VII allows for voluntary, private, raceconscious
  1054. programs aimed at eliminating racial imbalance
  1055. in traditionally segregated job categories.
  1056. Vicarious liability
    Legal doctrine under which a party can be held liable for
  1057. the wrongful actions of another party.
  1058. Vietnam Era Veterans Readjustment
  1059. Assistance Act (VEVRAA)
    Act that prohibits discrimination against certain veterans
  1060. by the U.S. government and federal contractors.
  1061. Washington v. Davis
    Court ruling that dealt with job testing and discrimination.
  1062. Worker Adjustment and Retraining
  1063. Notification (WARN) Act
    Act that requires some employers to give a minimum of 60
  1064. days' notice if a plant is to close or if mass layoffs will
  1065. occur.
  1066. Workforce analysis
    List of job titles ranked from lowest- to highest-paid within
  1067. an organizational unit.
  1068. Workforce planning
    Process an organization uses to analyze its current base of
  1069. employees and determine steps it must take to prepare for
  1070. future skill and labor needs.
  1071. Yield ratios
    Ratios that can help quantify recruitment efforts.
Card Set
PHR Flashcards Comprehensive Set Module 1,2,3,4,5,6