social psychology ch.9-12 textbook terms

  1. prejudice
    a preconeived negative judgment of a group and its indivdual members
  2. sterotype
    a belief about the personal attributes of a group of people, tend to be overgeneralized, inaccurate, and resistant to new information
  3. discrimination
    unjustified negative behavior toward a group or its members
  4. racism
    • 1. an individual's prejudical attitudes and discriminatory behavior toward people of a given race
    • 2. institutional practices that subordinate ppl of a given race
  5. sexism
    and individual's prejudical attitudes and discriminatory behavior toward ppl of a given sex
  6. social dominance orientation
    a motivation to have one's group dominate other social groups
  7. ethnocentric
    believing in the superiority of one's own ethnic and cultural group, and having a cooresponding disdain for all other groups
  8. authoritarian personality
    a personality that is disposted to favor obedience to authority and intolerance of outgroups and those lower in status
  9. realistic group conflict theory
    the theory that prejudice arises from competition between groups for scarce resources
  10. social identity
    the "we" aspect of our self-concept, the part of our answer to "Who am I?" that comes from our group memberships
  11. ingroup
    "us" a group of ppl who share a sense of belonging, a feeling of common identity
  12. outgroup
    "them" a group that ppl perceive as distinctively different from or apart from their ingroup
  13. ingroup bias
    the tendency to favor one's own group
  14. terror management
    according to "terror management theory" ppl's self-protective emotional and cognitive responses (including adhering more strongly to their cultural worldviews and prejudices) when confronted with reminders of their mortality
  15. outgroup homogenity effect
    perception of outgroup members as more similar to one another than are ingroup members.
  16. own-race bias
    the tendency for ppl to more accurately recognize faces of their own race
  17. stigma consciousness
    a person's expectation of being vistimized by prejudice or discrimination
  18. group-serving bias
    explaining away outgroup members' positive behaviors, also attributing negative behaviors to their dispositions
  19. just-world phenomenon
    the tendency of ppl to believe that the world is just and that ppl therefore get what they deserve and deserve what they get
  20. subtyping
    accommodating individuals who deviate from one's sterotype by thinking of them as "exceptions to the rule"
  21. subgrouping
    accommodating individuals who deviate from one's stereotype by forming a new stereotype about this subset of the group
  22. sterotype threat
    a disruptive concern, when facing a negative stereotype, that one will be evaluated based on a negative stereotype
  23. aggression
    physical or verbal behavior intended to hurt somone
  24. hostile aggression
    aggression driven by anger and performed as an end in itself
  25. instrumental aggression
    aggression that is a means to some other end
  26. instinctive behavior
    an innate, unlearned behavior pattern exhibited by all members of a species
  27. frustration-aggression theory
    the theory that frustration triggers a readiness to aggress
  28. frustration
    the blocking of goal-directed behavior
  29. displacement
    the redirection of aggression to a target other than the source of the frustration
  30. relative displacement
    the perception that one is less well-off than others with whom one compares oneself
  31. social learning theory
    the theory that we learn social behavior by observing and imitating and by being rewarded and punished
  32. catharsis
    emotional release
  33. prosocial behavior
    positive, constructive, helpful social behavior
  34. social scripts
    culturally provided mental instructions for how to act in various situations
  35. need to belong
    a motivation to bond with others in a relationships that provides ongoing, positive interactions
  36. proximity
    geographical nearness
  37. mere-exposure effect
    the tendency for novel stimuli to be liked more or rated more positively after the rater has been repeatedly exposed to them
  38. matching phenomenon
    the tendency for men and women to choose as partners those who are a "good match" in attractiveness and other traits
  39. physical-attractiveness stereotype
    the pressumption taht physically attractive people possess other socially desirable traits as well
  40. complementarity
    the popularly supposed tendency in a relationship between 2 people for each to compete what is missing in the other
  41. ingratiation
    the use of strategies, such as flattery, by which ppl seek to gain another's favor
  42. reward theory of attraction
    the theory that we like those whose behavior is rewarding to us or whom we associate with rewarding events
  43. passionate love
    a state of intense looking for union with another. passionate lovers are absorbed in each other, feel ecstatic at attaining their partner's love, and are disconsolate on losing it
  44. two-factor theory of emotion
    arousal x its label = emotion
  45. companionate love
    the affection we feel for those with whom our lives are deeply intertwined
  46. secure attachment
    attachments rooted in trust and marked by intimacy
  47. preoccupied attachment
    attachments marked by a sense of one's own unworthiness and anxiety, ambivalence, and possessiveness
  48. dismissive attachment
    an avoidant relationship style marked by distrust of others
  49. fearful attachment
    an avoidant relationship style marked by fear of rejection
  50. equity
    a condition in which the outcomes ppl receive from a relationship are proportional to what they contribute to it
  51. self-disclosure
    revealing intimate aspects of oneself to others
  52. disclosure reciprocity
    the tendency for one person's intimacy of self-disclosure to match that of a converstational partner
  53. altruism
    a motive to increase another's welfare without conscious regard for one's self-interests
  54. social exchange theory
    the theory that human interactions are transactions that aim to maximize one's costs
  55. egoism
    a motive to increase one's own welfare
  56. recoprocity norm
    an expectation that ppl will help, not hurt, those who have helped them
  57. social capital
    the mutual support and cooperation enabled by a social network
  58. social-responsibility norm
    an expectation that ppl will help those needing help
  59. kin selection
    the idea that evolution has selected altruism toward one's close relatives to enhance the survival of mutually shared genes
  60. empathy
    the vicarious experience of another's feelings, putting oneself in another's shoes
  61. bystander effect
    the finding that a person is less likely to provide help when there are other bystanders
  62. door-in-the-face phenomenon
    a strategy for gaining a concession. After somone first turns down a large request (the door-in the face), the same request counteroffers with a more reasonable request
  63. moral exclusion
    the perception of certain individuals or groups as outside the boundary within which one applies moral values and rules of fairness.
  64. overjustification effect
    the result of bribing ppl to do what they already like doing, they may then see their actions as externally controlled rather than intrinsically appealing
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social psychology ch.9-12 textbook terms
social psychology ch.9-12 textbook tems