1. Psychodiagnostic
    The study of personality through interpretation of behavior or nonverbal cues. A counselor may use the aforementioned factors or tests to label the client in a diagnostic category.
  2. Milton H. Erikson
    Associated with brief psychotherapy and innovative techniques in hypnosis.
  3. Jay Haley
    His work includes strategic and problem solving therapy, often uses paradox. Influenced by Milton H. Erickson.
  4. Arnold Lazarus
    Pioneer in behavior therapy movement, especially in systematic desensitization. Associated with multimodal therapy.
  5. William Perry
    Known for his ideas in adult cognitive development, especially college students. Came up with Dualistic thinking and Relativistic Thinking.
  6. Dualistic Thinking
    Concept developed by William Perry by which things are classified as good or bad, right or wrong. In other words, black or white thinking.
  7. Relativistic Thinking
    Not everything is right or wrong, it depends on the situation. There is more than one way to view the world. Higher order thinking than dualistic thinking, and should occur in adulthood.
  8. Robert Kegan
    His model stresses interpersonal development, is billed as a constructive model of development, meaning an individual constructs reality throughout the entire life span.
  9. Who made the following statement, “The ego is dependent on the Id”?
  10. What is a common criticism of Jean Piaget's findings?
    His findings were often based on his own children.
  11. Schema
    Piaget’s term for a system which permits the child to test out things in the physical world.
  12. In children, which concept is the most easily understood, volume or mass?
    Mass. Volume comes later, usually in Piaget's Concrete Operations Stage.
  13. Lev Vygotsky
    Was at odds with Piaget, and felt development did not take place naturally. Stages unfold due to educational intervention. Coined the term Zone of Proximal Development, which describes the difference between a child’s performance without a teacher verses that which he or she is capable of with an instructor.
  14. John B. Watson
    Father of American Behaviorism.
  15. Epigenetic
    Biological term, each stage emerges from the one before it.
  16. Lawrence Kolhberg
    Focused on Moral Development. Stated there are there levels, each divided into two stages. His levels: Preconventional, Conventional, and Post Conventional. Only 40% of people enter into the Post Conventional Stage in life.
  17. Menninger Clinic of Kansas
    Psychoanalytic foothold, conducted landmark work in biofeedback.
  18. Biofeedback
    Technique to help individuals learn to control bodily processes more effectively.
  19. RS
    Means Religious and Spiritual in our field.
  20. Identity Crisis
    Coined by Erikson, where a person suffers from knowing who they are and what they want to do. People may experience this in his stages
  21. Harry Stack Sullivan
    Came up with a stage theory for childhood development similar to Erickson, named the psychiatry of interpersonal relations. The following are the stages: infancy, childhood, the juvenile era, preadolescence, early adolescence, and late adolescence. Biological issues are less important than interpersonal and sociocultural demands of society.
  22. Hedonism (or native hedonism)
    Occurs in the second stage of the Preconventional level of Kohlberg’s moral developmental theory, where a child states, “If I am nice to others, I will get what I want”.
  23. Maturation Theory
    Behavior is guided exclusively via hereditary factors until the necessary stimuli are present in the environment. An individual’s neural development must be at a certain level of maturity for the behavior to unfold. Freud and Erikson are classified as Maturationist.
  24. John Bowlby
    Worked with bonding and attachment and stated they have survival value, called adaptive significance. To lead a normal life, a child must bond with an adult before the age of three. If the bond is severed, it is known as object loss, and is the breeding ground for abnormal behavior. The three stages of object loss: protest, despair, detachment.
  25. Arnold Gesell
    Used a one way mirror for observing children. A maturationist, he felt development is primarily determined through genetics/heredity. Thus, a child must be ready before a certain level of education (kindergarten).
  26. Midlife Crisis
    Occurs between the ages of 35 and 45 for men, and about five years earlier for women. This can occur during the Generativity vs. Stagnation stage in Erikson’s theory.
  27. Daniel Livinson
    Wrote two books, Season’s of a Man’s Life, and Season’s of a Woman’s Life, suggesting a midlife crisis was a good thing as it helped people to determine priorities. He stated a midlife crisis occurs for men ages 40-45, and women ages 35-40.
  28. Harry Harlow
    Stated that attachment was an innate tendency and is not learned. To demonstrate this, he put monkeys in isolation, and compared them to monkeys not in isolation, and found the monkeys in isolation were disturbed. He also placed monkeys with terry cloth mothers and others with wire cloth mothers. Baby Monkeys spent on average 16 hours a day with the terry cloth mother, and 1 and ½ hours with the wire mothers, suggesting contact comfort is important to bonding and attachment.
  29. Maccoby and Jacklin
    Found through research that males are better than females when performing mathematical calculations. This often does not occur until high school, and may be the result of sex role differences.
  30. When does Conformity peek?
    In the early teen years.
  31. Manifest Content
    Freudian term, in a dream it is the surface content, or the actual dream itself.
  32. Latent content
    The deeper meaning of the manifest content, this is the deep level, within the unconscious.
  33. Who commits suicide more, males or females?
    Males commit suicide more, however women attempt suicide more. Theories suggest males use more violent means and thus are more successful.
  34. What is the suicide rate in America?
  35. Stanley Coopersmith
    Found that child-rearing practices have impact on self esteem. Children with high self esteem were punished just as often as those with low self esteem, however they were told the meaning of the rules, and understood the reasoning for them. Children with low self esteem had less structure and were not told why some things were bad.
  36. Cephalocaudal
    Meaning head to foot
  37. Heritability
    The portion of trait that can be explained by genetic factors.
  38. Covert
    Any psychologica process that cannot be directly observed.
  39. In Vivo
    Exposure to the actual situation in real life. Example: In Vivo Desensitization.
  40. Gibson
    Researched the matter of depth perception in children by using a visual cliff. The visual cliff is a device which uses a class sheet which simulates a drop-off. Infants will not attempt to cross the drop-off, suggesting depth perception is an inborn trait.
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CPCE Questions