1. Sexuality and Sexual Expression throughout life
    • Sexual identity
    • •Our awareness of ourselves as male or female and the ways in which we express our sexual values, attitudes, feelings, and beliefs.
    • •It involves expected behaviors in the category created by society.

    • Sexual orientation:
    • •The enduring emotional, romantic, sexual, or affectional attraction we feel toward others (i.e., whether an individual is drawn to a partner of the same sex or the
    • opposite sex
    • •A preference for sexual partners of the same sex, the opposite sex, both sexes, or neither sex

    • 4 types sexual orientation:
    • •Heterosexuals (straight) are attracted to partners of the opposite sex.
    • Homosexuals are sexually attracted to people of the same sex.
    • •Bisexuals (bi’s) are attracted to members of both sexes.
    • •Asexuals lack any interest in or desire for sex.

    • What determines sexual orientation?
    • Biological reasons: •Region of the X chromosome may hold a “gay gene” resulting in male homosexuality
    • •Size of the hypothalumus (regulate sex drive)
    • •No evidence of biological influence on homosexuality
    • Social Constructionist theories: social pressure and culture
    • no study has shown conclusively that there is a gay gene or that the environment causes sexual orientation
    • Symbolic-interactionist perspective:
    • Holds that women and men are influenced by the sexual scripts (shared, gender-specific social and cultural expectations that guide our beliefs, attitudes, and values
    • about sex, such as our beliefs about appropriate sexual partners, sexual behaviors, and sexual conduct) that they learn from their culture.
    • sexual scripting framework: societal and cultural
    • processes ultimately determine and prescribe what we perceive as “sexual” and how we behave sexually

    • sexual scripts serves 2 purposes:
    • provide us a framework for normaive and and expected sexual behavior
    • provide roadmap of sorts of us, gives us direction (think, feel and act) (with whom, how, how often, when, where, why)

    Double standards: sex with multiple partners, sexual dysfunctions (insurance companies), female genital mutilation

    • Negotiating sexual expression:
    • Divergent sexual scripts for the two gender
    • Men accept more recreational sex vs. women
    • Women are more interested in romance vs. men are more interested in sex
    • Four standards of nonmarital sex
    • Abstinence
    • Permissiveness with affection: (Nonmarital intercourse involving affectionate relat.)
    • Permissiveness without affection: (Nonmarital intercourse with or without affection in the relat.) causal sex
    • The double standard
  2. Dating and Mate selection
    • 3 ways to choose a mate across culture:
    • marriage by capture: (collectivist/ partriachal societies)
    • marriage by arrangment (most common, parents as matchmakers)- price, social status, coninuous, sororate and leviate arrangments
    • free-choice: love, individualistic societies

    • Gender: evolutionary theory (bio of males/ females)
    • Culture: social construction theory, difference in understanding of romantic love

    • Evol Theory: romantic atttraction is a cultural means to a bio end (men look for beauty and women who can bear children, women look for protect/provide)
    • Social Construction: (filter) get all the edu u can, make something happen, action-oriented approach, gather all the facts

    • The filter Theory of Mate Selection:
    • cultural filters: exoagamous (pool of eligibles)/ endogamous (95%)
    • sociological filters: propinquity (geographic closesness), homogamy (similarities)
    • phychological filters: complementary needs, reward-cost for profit, desired personailty charac.

    • People engage in greater self-disclosure with strangers
    • because a stranger does not have access to a person’s social circle.
  3. Mate selection in Chinese Cultures
    • factors in decision-making:
    • sociocultural contests: homogamy, parental approval
    • exchange theories: rewards, costs

    Lioan Shanbo and Zhu Yintai: constraints of love marriage in specific cultural, social, and geo contests

    Arranged marriage: modern version match making corner in Shanghai, challenges, exchange theory

    Mail order like birdes: commonificiatin of int'l marriage, sociodeomographic change, exchange theory (an exchange of the man’s economic resources for the woman’s youth and attractiveness (some times the woman’s domestic skills/labor).
  4. deinstitutionalizaiton of marriage: alternatives to marriage
    motivations for marriage: love/romance, personal fulfillment, companionship, parenthood, economic security

    • structural functional theory: marriage and fmaily contribute to society
    • marry in terms of societal needs or demand for legit children doesn't take into account ind'l motivation factors
    • principle of legitimacy: socially and legally recog. by father, freedom to be sexually active vs, freedom to conceive children outside of marriage, marriage is based on official control of childbearing

    Function of marriage: regulate sexual behavior/ stabilize adult personalities, bind male and female, provide phyical care of young, socialize them to be productive members of society who will replace after death

    • Marriage as a legal contract:
    • legal marriage: agreement, defined by state
    • social marriage: cohabitate and engage in behavior, w/o engaging in a marriage ceremony that is validated by state

    Marriage in U.S: –29 states with constitutional amendments restricting marriage to one man and one woman.

    • Benefits of Marriage: gov, joint insurance, retirement, medial decisions, care of children, wrongful death benefits, dv protection orders, joint parenting, tax, inheritance, divorce, hospital visitation, corpse
    • expectations of permanence, expectations of sexual exclusivitity

    • ◦Marriage rate has declined (11.1% in 1950 to 7.8% in 2004)
    • ◦Divorce rate is high today (3.7%) than in 1950 (2.6%)
    • ◦Birthrate has steadily declined from 24.1% (1950) to 14.0% (2004).

    • What contributes to the deinstitutionalization of marriage:
    • Changing division of labor in the home and women’s participation in the labor force
    • Increase acceptance of childbearing outside of marriage
    • Increase acceptance of singlehood and voluntary childlessness
    • Moving away from institutional marriage to individualized marriage
    • Growth of cohabitation
    • Growth of same-sex relationships and marriages

    • GLBT acceptance
    • It is estimated between 4% to 10% of adults in the
    • U.S. are exclusively or substantially homosexual
    • In 2003, approx. 700,000 same-sex households in the U.S.

    • GLBT accecptance:
    • Massa first
    • 8 states permit gay marriage
    • Nevada, Oregon and Wash permit domestic partnerships

    • Let's Get Married" video
    • linked divorce to crimes, dropouts, welfare, and out of wedlock children
    • created "next generation of monsters"
    • linked to "America's social ills"
    • goal: solved the marriage problem, solve social problem
    • started marriage moviement
    • hosted Smart marriages annual conference
    • institutionalized the covenenat marriage option
  5. Marriage and Communication
    • Trigger for marital conflicts:
    • money: 51% dont talk about money before marriage, 84% money problems
    • division of labor: 62% says its important
    • sexual infidelity: not a common ocurance
    • children: different philosophies, children in remarriage
    • in-laws

    6 Hidden Issues:
    control and power, needing and caring, recognitition, commitment, integrity, acceptance

    • Successful Marriage:
    • compatibility: happier with similar personalities
    • flexibilitiy: give and take, adjust to their differences
    • positive attitudes: like each other, romantic bliss= higher divorce rate,
    • emotional support: more important
    • communication and conflict resolution: key ingredient

    • Circumplex Model:
    • levels of coehions: disengaged, separated, connected, enmeshed,
    • flexibility: chaotic, flexible, strcutured, rigid

    • Fitzpatrick (marital ideology)
    • interdependent couples: level of sharing/ disclosure
    • separates: satisfied if they avoided jarring conflicts
    • mixed couples: dissatisfaction, dissimilar ideologies

    • Huston/Meiz (2004) predict collapse of union
    • absense of pos affect and presence of neg affet
    • decline of love and affection
    • show pos affection by: little things, listen, interest, fun

    • Gottman 4 horsman of apocalypse
    • contempt: inferior and undersirable-name calling
    • criticism: disapproving judgements
    • defenseiveness: getting ready for upcoming attack
    • stonewalling: resistance, refusing to listen to complaints
    • belligernece(later): provacative and challenging to spouse authority

    —Beligerence, contempt, and defensiveness were coded as high-intensity, negative affect.

    —Anger, sadness, whining, disgust, and fear were coded as low-intensity negative affect.

    • 10rules to successful relationship
    • 1. Express your love verbally
    • 2. Be physically affectionate
    • 3. Express your appreciation and even admiration
    • 4. self-disclosure
    • 5. Offer each other an emotional support system
    • 6. Express your love materially
    • 7. Accept your partner’s demands and put up with your partner’s shortcomings
    • 8. Make time to be alone together
    • 9. Do not take your relationship for granted
    • 10. Do unto each other as you would have the other do unto you
  6. Transition to Parenthood
    • Motivations for Parenthood:
    • personal identity, meaning/purpose of life, satisfaction lacking in jobs, exercise authority

    • costs and benefits of children
    • benefits: joy, fulfillment, rite of passage
    • costs: $231,000 to 18 for middle income, about 21% of earnings, child rearing, emotional, interpersonal relational costs, opportutnity cost (mommy tax, edu opport)

    • should your partner agree?
    • planners: discuss issue and decide
    • acceptance-of-fate: pleasantly surprised
    • ambivalent couples: mixed feelings
    • yes-no couples: one partner may not want child

    Total Fertility rate (TFR): # of births a typical women will have over lifetime

    • Fertility Trends in US:
    • economy: cost of living rise, women with jobs
    • declining infant mortality: medicine
    • improvments of contraceptive methods
    • women with higher edu
    • demographic variables: foreign born, native born

    • More likely to have children: women not in labor force, less edu, low income, ppl of color
    • Ethnic grp with highest fertility: hispanic
    • lowest fertility rate: native american/alaskan
    • reasons: hispanic migrated from nations with high birthrates

    • Socioemotional Behavior:
    • Even though parents become more involved in child-care responsibilities and are restricted to certain types of
    • leisure activities, the amount of affection they express in their marriages remains constant compared to nonparent couples.

    • How do parent couples maintain their quality marital relationships?
    • Shifting their lifestyle toward a working partnership
    • Wives focus more on the child
    • Husbands sacrifice their preferred leisure activities
Card Set
exam 3