Vitamins, Minerals, and Water

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  1. Minerals are inorganic elements that do what?
    • Metabolic tasks in the body
    • Involved in processes of building tissue and activating, regulating, transmitting, and controlling metabolic processes.
  2. The trace minerals in the human body are defined as what?
    • Remaining 18 elements make up the group of trace minerals
    • Iron (Fe)
    • Iodine (I)
    • Zine (Zn)
    • Selenium (Se)
    • Flouride (F-)
    • Copper (Cu)
    • Manganese (Mn)
    • Chromium (Cr)
    • Molybdenum (Mo)
    • Cobolt (Co)
    • Boron (B)
    • Vanadium (V)
    • Nickel (Ni)
  3. Calcium is necessary for what?
    • Four basic functions in the body
    • Bone and Tooth Formation
    • Blood Clotting
    • Muscle and Nerve Action
    • Metabolic Reactions
  4. Phosphorus is found in what food?
    • Found in all animal and plant cells
    • High-protein foods are particularly rich in phosphorus, so milk and milk products, meat, fish, and eggs are the primary sources of phosphorus in the average diet.
  5. What are some signs of iron deficiency?
    • (1) Inadequate dietary iron
    • (2) Excessive blood loss
    • (3) Inability to form hemoglobin because of a lack of factors such as Vitamin B12
    • (4) Lack of gastric hydrochloric acid, which liberates iron for intestinal absorption
    • (5) Inhibitors of iron absorption
    • (6) Intestinal mucosal lesions affecting the absorptive surface area
  6. Iodine is essential to health because it affects what?
    Iodine's basic function is as a component of thyroxine (T4), a hormone synthesized by the thyroid gland that helps control the basal metabolic rate (BMR).
  7. What is hypokalemia?
    Lack of potassium in blood
  8. Where is sulfur found in the body?
    Hair, skin, nails
  9. Sodium is especially important in what mechanism? (Osmosis, diffusion or filtration)
  10. What can a deficiency of calcium cause?
    • Tetany, a condition characterized by muscle spasms.
    • Osteoporosis: abnormal thinning of the bone, producing a prous, fragile, latticelike bone tissue of enlarged spaces prone to fracture or deformity.
  11. Liquid from cooking vegetable should be used in preparing other dishes because why?
    Mineral salts are soluble in water
  12. Iron is known to be a necessary component of what (hint: part of blood)?
    • Hemoglobin: carries oxygen to the cells, where it is used for oxidation and metabolism.
    • Myoglobin: A protein in muscle cells that is structurally and functionally analogous to the hemoglobin in blood.
  13. Why is sodium restricted in cardiovascular conditions? (What does too much sodium cause?)
    Excessive sodium intake has been linked to hypertension in individuals who are salt sensitive.
  14. What can fluid collection within the interstitial spaces cause?
    The sodium can pull water out of cells into the extracelluar space by osmosis, causing edema.
  15. In a mixture of sugar and water, water is what?
  16. Fluid within the cells is called what?
  17. Good sources of water include what? (Will be given a list of food items to choose from)
  18. The person most prone for beriberi is who?
    A disease of the peripheral nerves caused by a deficiency of thiamin (vitamin B1) characterized by pain (neuritis) and paralysis of legs and arms, cardiovascular changes, and edema.
  19. Which vitamin is natural histamine that may help reduce the severity of colds?
    Vitamin C
  20. What is the most abundant mineral in the body?
    • Phosphorus and Calcium are the most abundant minerals in the body; used for bone formation.
    • Phosphorus functions - Bone & Tooth formation, Energy Metabolism, Acid-base balance.
  21. What are good sources of calcium? (Will be given a list of foods to choose from)
    • Milk and milk products are the most important sources of readily available calcium.
    • Milk products such as yogurt, cheese, and ice cream are excellent sources of dietary calcium.
    • Source of Calcium for Vegetarians: Chinese cabbage, broccoli, collards, kale, and turnip greens
  22. Iodine is necessary for the what? (Hint: hormones)
    • The hypothalamus excretes thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH). TRH, in turn, stimulates the release of TSH from the anterior pituitary gland.
    • TSH controls the thyroid gland's uptake of iodie from the blood stream and release of T3 into the blood streem.
  23. What are good sources of potassium (will be given a list of foods to choose from)
    • Abundant in natural foods
    • Unprocessed foods: fruits such as oranges and bananas, vegetables such as broccoli and leafy green vegetables, fresh meats, whole grains, and milk products.
  24. How does the body compensate for dehydration?
    • Initial symptoms include thirst, headache, decreased urine output, dry mouth, and dizziness.
    • As the condition worsens, symptoms can progress to visual impairment, hypotension, loss of appetite, muscle weakness, kidney failure, and seizures.
    • Chronic or severe dehydration is known to increase resting heart rate; contribute to kidney infections, gallstones, and constipation.
  25. Water found inside cells is called what?
  26. Antioxidant
    Any substance that reduces oxidative damage (damage due to oxygen) such as that caused by free radicals.
  27. Megadose
    a very large dose of a vitamin, taken by some people as a form of self-medication; greatly exceeds the amount usually prescribed or recommended.
  28. A vitaminosis
    Deficiency of Vitamins
  29. Fortified
    • Vitamins and minerals added to foods after processing to improve nutritional value. Such vitamins and minerals may not have been originally present in the food or not in significant quantities.
    • Ex: include vitamin A and D fortified milk, calcium-fortified orange juice, iodine-fortified salt.
  30. Which patient listed below is most at risk for a water imbalance? (List of different age people will be given.)
  31. Which one of these is not a major mineral?
    • Calcium
    • Potassium
    • Iron
    • Sulfur
  32. Selenium is a trace mineral & antioxidant, which food is it not found in?
    • Seafood
    • Organ meats
    • Fruits
    • Whole Grain
  33. What complication is due to a deficiency in copper?
    bone abnormalities & anemias.
  34. Vitamins that are taken in addition to those already in the diet are called what?
  35. What are substances called that are converted into vitamins in the body?
  36. What is the best way to get the needed daily vitamin requirements?
    • Well balanced diet
    • Consuming five to nine servings of fruits and vegetables
  37. Which method helps preserve the vitamin content in food? (Hint: Which way to cook food)
  38. What are the water soluble vitamins? (Names)
    B1, B2, B6, B12, Niacin, Folate, C, Panthothemic Acid
  39. What is another name for vitamin C?
    Asorbic Acid
  40. What vitamin is needed for the absorption of calcium?
    Vitamin D
  41. Which vitamin is necessary for proper blood clotting?
    Vitamin K
  42. Which vitamins function as antioxidants? (Names)
    Vitamin C and Vitamin E
  43. Which vitamin does the body produce when exposed to sunlight?
    Vitamin D
  44. True or False: Vitamin E is considered a natural blood thinner?
  45. Thiamine is another name for what vitamin?
    Vitamin B3
  46. Beta-carotene is found in what food groups?
    Fruits and Vegetables
  47. A deficiency of vitamin C leads to what disorder?
    Scurvy; sore gums, hermorrhages around bones and joints; anemia; etc.
  48. Milk is tored in opaque containers to preserve what vitamin?
    Vitamin B2
  49. A goiter can result from a deficiency or excess of what?
  50. Excess body water or edema is likely caused by failure of what system?
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Vitamins, Minerals, and Water
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