1. _____________ conditioning is usually better than classical at explaining voluntary behaviors.
  2. Developed the concept of operant conditioning.
    B. F. Skinner
  3. Form of associative learning in which the consequences of a behavior change the probability of the behavior's occurrence.
    Operant conditioning (or instrumental conditioning)
  4. An operant behavior occurs
  5. Consequence depends on behavior
  6. States that behaviors followed by positive outcomes are strengthened and that behaviors followed by negative outcomes are weakened
    Thorndike's law of effect
  7. Rewarding approximations of a desired behavior
  8. Midbrain area / an extension of the__________ that plays a vital role in our learning to repeat a rewarded behavior
    nucleus accumbens (Nac) / amygdala
  9. Researchers have found that the neurotransmitter______ plays a crucial role in the reinforcement of behaviors
  10. Process by which a rewarding stimulus or event following a particular behavior increases the probability that the behavior will happen again.
  11. Pleasant or rewarding consequences of a behavior fall into two types
    positive reinforcement and negative reinforcement
  12. In positive reinforcement, the frequency of a behavior increases because it is followed by the
    presentation of something that is good.
  13. In negative reinforcement, the frequency of a behavior increases because it is followed by the
    removal of something unpleasant.
  14. T or F In this case, “positive” and “negative” have nothing to do with “good” and “bad.”
  15. Innately satisfying; does not take any learning on the organism's part to make it pleasurable
    Primary reinforcer
  16. Acquires its positive value through an organism's experience; learned or conditioned
    Secondary reinforcer
  17. Secondary reinforcers can be used in a system called a
    token economy.
  18. In a token economy behaviors are rewarded with ________ that can be exchanged later for desired _____
    tokens / rewards
  19. In operant conditioning, means performing a reinforced behavior in a different situation.
  20. In operant conditioning, means responding appropriately to stimuli that signal that a behavior will or will not be reinforced
  21. In operant conditioning, occurs when a behavior is no longer reinforced and decreases in frequency
  22. When a reinforcer follows a behavior only a portion of the time
    Partial reinforcement
  23. Specific patterns that determine when a behavior will be reinforced
    Schedules of reinforcement
  24. Involve the number of behaviors that must be performed prior to reward
    Ratio schedules
  25. Refer to the amount of time that must pass before a behavior is rewarded.
    Interval schedules
  26. In a _____ schedule, the number of behaviors or the amount of time is always the same.
  27. In a _____ schedule, the required number of behaviors or the amount of time that must pass changes and is unpredictable from the perspective of the leamer
  28. A _____ schedule reinforces a behavior after a set number of behavior
  29. Behaviors are rewarded an average number of times but on an unpredictable basis.
  30. Produce high, steady rates of behavior more resistant to extinction than the other three schedules.
    Variable-ratio schedules
  31. Ratio schedules of reinforcement are based on the
    number of be of behaviors that occur
  32. Interval reinforcement schedules are determined by the
    time elapsed since the last behavior was rewarded.
  33. A fixed-interval schedule reinforces the first behavior after
    a fixed amount of time has passed
  34. A variable-interval schedule is a timetable in which a behavior is reinforced after
    a variable amount of time has elapsed.
  35. A consequence that decreases the likelihood that a behavior will occur.
  36. In ___________ punishment, a behavior decreases when it is followed by the presentation of an unpleasant stimulus.
  37. In ____________ punishment, a behavior decreases when a positive stimulus is removed.
  38. In operant conditioning, the __________ the interval, the more efficient the learning.
  39. Humans also respond to _______ reinforcers
  40. The use of operant conditioning principles to change human behavior
    Applied behavior analysis (also called behavior modification)
  41. A manager who rewards his or her staff with a casual-dress day or a half day off if they meet a particular work goal is employing
    applied behavior analysis.
Card Set
Chapter about operant conditioning