Test 4-18

  1. Abiotic components:
    Nonliving chemical and physical factors.
  2. Biotic Components:
    Living factors
  3. Organism:
    The basic unit of ecological systems.
  4. Population:
    A group of individuals of the same species living in the same place at the same time.
  5. Community:
    All organisms that inhabit a particular area; assemble of populations of different species.
  6. Ecosystem:
    Includes all biotic and abiotic factors within a specific area.
  7. Biosphere:
    The global ecosystem; the sum of all the planet's ecosystem-all of the life and where it lives.
  8. Acclimation:
    Physiological responce to a situation that is long term, but still reversible.
  9. Anatomical responce:
    Acclimation that may become irreversible or reversible on a season basis.
  10. Behavioral responses:
    Acclimation that is a change based in behavior rather than a physical adaptation.
  11. Clumped:
    • Individuals aggregated in patches.
    • a. most common in nature.
    • b. Associated with uneven nutrient distribution(fungi) or social behaviors(wolves)
  12. Uniform:
    Evenly spaced pattern of dispersion; direct result of individual interactions.
  13. Random:
    Position of each individual is independent of other individual.
  14. Zero population growth:
    When birth and death rates of a population are equal.
  15. Exponential population growth:
    Maximum increase of a species' population under ideal conditions.
  16. Carrying capacity:
    Maximum population size a particular environment can support.
  17. Logistic population growth:
    Population increase levels off as carrying capacity is reached.
  18. Density dependent factor:
    Limiting factor whose effects intensify as population densify increases.
  19. Intraspecific competition:
    Competition between individuals of the same species for the same limited resources.
  20. Density independent factor:
    Limiting factor whose intensity is unrelated to population density.
  21. Life history:
    The series of events from birth through reproduction and death that affect an organism's life schedule.
  22. Cohort:
    A group of individuals of the same age whose fate can be followed from birth to death.
  23. Survivorship curve:
    Plot of the proportion or numbers in a cohort still at each age.
  24. Survivorship curve TYPE I.
    Low death rates during early and middle life, but steed death rates during late life.
  25. Type II:
    Constant death rates during the entire life of an organism.
  26. Type III:
    High death rates during early life, but leveling off during middle and late life.
  27. Snowshoe Hare and Lynx:
    Two species whose population size directly depends on the other.
  28. Age structure:
    The relative numbers of individuals at each age in a population.
  29. Age structure categories:
    • 1. Pre-reproductive juveniles.
    • 2. Reproductive adults.
    • 3. Post-reproductive adults.
Card Set
Test 4-18