What are the four specific characteristics of cancer (4)?
- Uncontrolled proliferation
- Dedifferentiation and loss of function
What anticancer drugs are considered cytotoxic (4)?
- Alkylating drugs
- Cytotoxic antibodies
- Plant derivatives
What hormones are used to treat cancer?
What are the different classifications of chemotherapeutic agents (4)?
- Cytotoxic drugs
- Monoclonal antibodies
- Protein Kinase inhibitors
What are some complications of chemotherapy (3)?
- Extravasion of drug
- Anaphylactic reactions
- Toxic side effects
What is a consequence of rapid tumor lysis?
- Many intact cells are liberated at once causing:
- Metabolic acidosis
- Increase in uric acid
What drugs are used to treat Squamous cell carcinoma (2)?
- Whole cell bacilli Calmetter-Guerine (BCG)
- Intralesional chemotherapy (Cisplastin, Methotrexate, 5-fluorouracil)
What drug stimulates the immune system to recognize tumor cell specific antigens, is used to treat SCC and sarcoids, and glucocorticoids are used to pretreat?
What chemotherapeutic agent can be injected into the lesion itself, forms covalent bonds in DNA to prevent replication, is used to treat SCC, and has a side effect of being nephrotoxic?
What chemotherapeutic agent is used to treat SCC, is an antimetabolite folate antagonist, metabolites remain in the cell for weeks, and has side effects of bone marrow toxicity and GIT irritation?
What chemotherapeutic agent is used to treat SCC and prevents DNA formation but not RNA or protein synthesis?
How are malignant lymphomas treated?
Combination of several drugs on rotation to offset toxicity and side effects
Why are different drugs used in rotation in chemotherapy?
Decreases the possibility of the development of resistance to individual agents (don't use drugs of same class)
What is the mode of action of alkylating agents?
Formation of carbodium ion (interferes with transcription and replication)
What alkylating agent is a nitrogen mustard and has side effects of alopecia and sterile hemorrhage cystitis?
What are some indications of cyclophosphamide use (4)?
- Malignant lymphoma
- Mast cell tumors
What alkylating agent is used in animals with multiple myeloma and is given orally?
What is the slowest working alkylating agent and is used to treat chronic lymphocytic leukemia?
Which cytotoxic antibiotics inhibit DNA topoisomerase II and RNA synthesis?
Doxorubicin and the anthracyclines
Which cytotoxic antibiotic intercalates in DNA interfering with RNA polymerase and with topoisomerase II?
Which cytotoxic antibiotic causes fragmentation of the DNA chains (will act on non-dividing cells as well as dividing cells)?
Which cytotoxic antibiotic is activated to give an alkylating metabolite?
What antimetabolite is used as a chemotherapeutic agent and has the action of inhibiting protein synthesis?
What should be used to treat sarcoids due to papilloma virus (3)?
What is the mode of action of chemotherapeutic agents made from plant derivatives?
Drug binds to the tubulin and inhibits its polymerization into microtubules (prevents cell replication in metaphase)
What chemotherapeutic drugs are derived from Madagaskar periwinkle (3)?
What chemotherapeutic drugs are derived from the Taxus genus of plants (2)?
- Paclitaxel (IV)
- Docetaxel (PO)
What chemotherapeutic drugs are considered monoclonal antibodies (3)?
What is the only drug in the class of protein kinase inhibitors?
What hormone has causes direct destruction of tumor cells, reduces tumor size, and has the side effect of inducing PgP expression?
What hormones are useful in perianal gland tumors only?
In what tumors are anti-prostagens possibly useful?
What are some ways that cells build up resistance to anti-cancer drugs (5)?
- Decrease accumulation of cytotoxic drug
- Insufficient activation of the drug
- Increases utilization of alternative metabolic pathways
- Rapid repair
- Altered activity of targets
What should be the primary treatment for tumors?