Structural Geology

The flashcards below were created by user bry2011 on FreezingBlue Flashcards.

  1. What is Structural Geology?
    The branch of geology concerned with the internal structure of bedrock and the shapes, arrangement, and interrelationship of rock units.
  2. What is Brunton?
    A compact field compass, with sights and reflector attached, used for geological mapping and surveying.
  3. What is Strike?
    The compass direction of a line formed by the intersection of an inclined place wiht a horizontal plane.
  4. What is Dip?
    The compass direction in which the angle of dip is measured
  5. What is Stress?
    A force of acting on a body, or rock unit,, that tends to change the size or shape of that body, or rock unit.
  6. What is Strain?
    Change in size (volume) or shape of a body (rock unit) in response to stress.
  7. What is Folds?
    Bend in layer bedrock.
  8. What is Elastic Deformation?
    A temporary shape change that is self-reversing after the force is removed, so that the object returns to its original shape
  9. What is Plastic Deformation?
    It is when the stress is sufficient to permanently deform the metal,
  10. What is Brittle?
    Cracking or rupturing of a body under stress.
  11. What is Limb?
    Portion of a fold shared by an anticline and a syncline.
  12. What is Axis (Hinge)?
    It is a line about which a fold appears to be hinged.
  13. What is Axial (Hinge plane)?
    A plane containing all of the hinge lines of a fold.
  14. What is Plunging fold?
    A fold in which the hinge line or axis is not horizontal.
  15. Anticline?
    A fold shaped like an arch in which the rock layers usually dip away from the axis of the fold and the oldest rocks are in the center of the fold.
  16. What is Syncline?
    A trough-like fold in which the rock layers usually dip toward an axis, and the youngest rocks are in the center of the fold.
  17. What is Overturned fold?
    A fold in which both limbs dip in the same direction.
  18. What is Structural dome?
    A structure in which beds dip away from a central point.
  19. What is Structural basin?
    A structure in which the beds dip toward a central point and the yongest rock layers are in the center or core of the structure.
  20. What is Joint?
    A fracture or crack in bedrock along which essentially no displacement has occured.
  21. What is Fault?
    A fracture in bedrock along which movement has taken place.
  22. What is Hanging wall?
    The overlying surface of an inclined fault place.
  23. What is Footwall?
    The underlying surface of an inclined fault plane?
  24. What is Graben?
    A downdropped block bounded by normal fualt.
  25. What is Horst?
    An up-raised black-bounded by normal fualts.
  26. What is Normal fualt?
    A fualt in which the hanging wall block moved down relative to the footwall block.
  27. What is Reversal fualt?
    A fualt in which the hanging wall block moved up relative to the footwall block
  28. What is Thrust fualt?
    A reverse fualt in which the dip of the fualt plane is at a low angle to horizontal.
  29. What is Strike-slip-Fualt?
    A fualt in which movement is parallel to the strike of the fualt surface.
  30. What is Oblique-slip fault?
    A fualt in with both strike-slip and dip-slip components.
  31. What is Offset Streams?
    A low ridge follows the fault through the Carrizo Plain. Along its front (west) edge are many small streambeds, shunted leftward by fault motion.
  32. What is Offset Ridges?
    A ridge consisting of resistant sedimentary rock that has been made discontinuous as a result of faulting.
  33. What is Facetted/ Triangular Spurs?
    A rock fragment with one or more flat surface cuased by erosive action.
  34. What is Sag Ponds?
    Is a body of water, which forms as water collects in the lowest parts of the depression that forms between two strands of an active strike-slip fault.
  35. What is a Scarp?
    Is the topographic expression of faulting attributed to the displacement of the land surface by movement along faults.
  36. Offset Strata?
    Is a layer of sedimentary rock or soil with internally consistent characteristics that distinguish it from other layers.
  37. What is a Gouge?
    Is an unconsolidated tectonite (a rock formed by tectonic forces) with a very small grain size.
  38. What is Fault Breccia?
    Is a breccia (a rock type consisting of angular clasts) that was formed by tectonic forces.
  39. What is Slickensides?
    Is a smoothly polished surface caused by frictional movement between rocks along the two sides of a fault.
  40. What is the San Andreas Fault?
    is a continental strike-slip fault that runs a length of roughly 810 miles (1,300 km) through California in the United States.
  41. What is the Hayward Fault Zone?
    Is a geologic fault zone capable of generating significantly destructive earthquakes.
  42. What is the Garlock Fault?
    Is a left-lateral strike-slip fault running approximately northeast-southwest in the Mojave Desert of southern California.
  43. What is the Newport Inglewood Fault?
    Is a right-lateral fault in Southern California. The fault extends for 75 kilometers (47 mi) from Culver City southeast to Newport Beach at which point it runs out into the Pacific Ocean.
  44. What is the Malibu Coast?
    Is an affluent, beachfront city in northwestern Los Angeles County, California, US.Malibu consists of a 21-mile (34 km)[4] strip of prime Pacific coastline.
  45. What is the Santa Monic Fault?
    is a beachfront city in western Los Angeles County, California, US.
  46. What is the Hollywood Fault?
    Is a famous district in Los Angeles, California, United States situated west-northwest of downtown Los Angeles
  47. What is the San Fernando Fault?
    Is a city located in the San Fernando Valley, in northwestern region of Los Angeles, California, United States.
  48. What is the Blind Thrust Faults?
    If the fault plane terminates before it reaches the Earth's surface, it is because blind thrust faults are difficult to detect until they rupture.
Card Set
Structural Geology
Study Guide
Show Answers