Urinary System

  1. What does the Urinary system Excrete?
  2. What does the Respiratory system Excrete?
  3. What does the Digestive system Excrete?
  4. What does the Integumentary system Excrete?
  5. The active form of Vitamin D is what?
    • Calcitriol
    • It stimulates absorption of Calcium
  6. What stimulates the absoption of Calcium?
    Vitamin D / Calcitriol
  7. What are the Functions of the Urinary system?
    • Excretion of metabolic waste
    • Regulation of :
    • fluid
    • electrolytes
    • Blood acidity
    • Blood Volume
    • Blood Pressure by Renin
    • Production of Erythropietin
    • Activation of Vitamin D
  8. What hormone stimulates the production of Red Blood Cells?
    Erythropietin stimulates bone marrow to produce RBC's
  9. What is Renin?
    Enzyme produced in the Kidney to regulate Blood Pressure & Volume
  10. What are the components of the Urinary System?
    • Kidneys
    • Ureter
    • Urinary Bladder
    • Urethra
  11. What do the Kidneys do?
    Produce Urine
  12. What do the Ureters do?
    Conduction tubes that transport urine toward the bladder
  13. What does the Bladder Do?
    Temporarily stores urine prior to elimination
  14. What does the Urethra do?
    • conducts urine to the exterior
    • In males it also transports semen
  15. What is the Renal Capsule?
    Covers the Kidney
  16. Where is the Renal Cortex ?
    The outer region of the kidney
  17. What is the Renal Medulla ?
    Inner regionof the Kidney (includes the pyramids)
  18. What are the Renal Pyramids ?
    Triangle shaped structures found in the Kidneys
  19. Where are the Renal Papilla found?
    in the Pyramids of the Kidney @ Apex (tip)
  20. What the Renal Columns ?
    coritcal tissue between the pyramids in the Kidneys
  21. What does the Minor Calyx do?
    Receives urine from the Papilla
  22. What does the Major Calyx do?
    collects urine from 2 or more minor calyces
  23. What does the Renal Pelivs do?
    cllects urine from ALL major calyces
  24. What do Ureters do?
    Carry urine from the renal pelvis to the bladder
  25. Blood flowing into the kidneys comes through what vessel?
    From the Abdomnial Aorta to the Renal Artery
  26. What vessels are located in the kidney beyond the renal artery?
    • Segmental Arteries
    • Interlobar arteries
    • Arcuate Arteries
    • Cortical Radiate Arteries
    • Afferent Arterioles
  27. Where does blood flow beyond the Afferent Arterioles?
    • Glomerulus
    • Efferent Arteriole
    • Peritubular Capillaries
    • Venules
    • Cortical Radiate Veins
    • Arcuate Veins
    • Inerlobar Veins
    • Renal Vein
  28. What is a nephron and where is it located?
    • Microscopic filtering unit of the Kidney, it consists of Renal Corpuscle & Tubules.
    • 85% are located int Renal Cortex / 15% in the Pyramids
  29. What does each Nephron do?
    Filters blood to make Urine
  30. 85% of Nephrons are located in the Cortex, what are these caled?
    Corticle Nephrons
  31. 15% of Nephrons are located in the Pyramids, what are these caled?
    Juxtamendullary Nephrons
  32. The Renal Corpuscle includes what 2 structures?
    The Glomerulus & Bowman's Capsule
  33. What is a Glomerulus?
    Loops of capillaries located in the Bowman's Capsule
  34. What is a Bowman's Capsule?
    The double layer capsule surrounding the Glomerulus
  35. Name the Renal Tubules ?
    • Proximal Convoluted Tubule
    • Loop of Henle
    • Distal Convoluted Tubule
    • Collecting Duct
  36. What vessel collects filtrate leaving the Bowman's Capsule?
    Proximal Convoluted Tubule
  37. What four processes are needed for Urine formation?
    • Filtration
    • Reabsorbtion
    • Secretion
    • Excretion
  38. Explain filtration :
    High Glomerular capillary bllod pressure (55 mmHg) forces water and diisolved solutes through the glomerular capillary wall into the Bowman's capsular space to form the initial FILTRATE.
  39. What is the pressure of the glomerular capillaries?
    55 mmHg
  40. What is filtered into the Bowman's capsular space?
    • Water & Dissolved Solutes
    • NO plasma proteins or blood cells
  41. Filtration is a ________ selective process.
  42. What does Filtrate contian?
    • waste products = Urea, Uric Acid
    • Useful substances + water, organic nutrients & electrolytes
  43. (RBF) Renal Blood Flow =
    • Amount of blood through the kidneys in ONE minute
    • about 1200 mL/ minute
  44. Glomerular Blood Flow (GBF) =
    • Amount of Filtrate formed by Kidneys in ONE minute
    • About 120mL/ minute
  45. How much of renal bllod flow becomes Filtrate?
    About 10 %
  46. How long does it take you whole blood to pass through your kidnesy?
    about 5 minutes
  47. How is GBF regulated?
    By Dilation & Constriction of Afferent & Efferent arteriols
  48. Dilation of afferent arterioles & Constriction efferent arterioles causes what?
    • Increased GFR
    • this increases the amount of blood entering the capillary/ glomerius to be filtered.
  49. Constriction of afferent arterioles & diliation of effernt areterioles causes what?
    Decreased GFR
  50. What are the 3 methods of regulation for GFR?
    • Autoregulation
    • Neural Regulation
    • Hormonal Regulation
  51. How does Autoregulation happen?
    by the Kidneys themselves
  52. How does Neural Regulation happen?
    Autonomic Nervous System
  53. How does Hormonal Regulation happen?
    Hormones indirectly affect GFR
  54. Where does most Reabsorbtion take place?
    Proximal Convoluted Tubule
  55. During reabsorbtion how is Water reabsorbed?
  56. During Tubular Reabsorbtion how are solutes moved?
    • Diffusion from high to low concentrations
    • Active trasport uses ATP
    • Co-transport hooked to another molecule
    • Pinocytosis or cell eating
  57. Each day between _____ & ____ L of filtrate is formed.
    150 - 180 Liters
  58. How much Urine is eliminated each day?
    1-2 L
  59. How much filtrate is REabsorbed each day?
    148 - 178 L
  60. How much H2O is reabsorbed in the Proximal Convoluted Tubules ?
    65 %
  61. How much H2O is reabsorbed in the Descending limbs of Henley?
    15 %
  62. How much H2O is reabsorbed in the Ascending lib of Henley?
  63. How much H2O is reabsorbed in the Distal Convoluted Tubules ?
    10 %
  64. How much H2O is reabsorbed in the collection ducts?
    10 %
  65. In Tubular Secretion some solutes move from the blood of the peritubular capillaries into what?

    name some of the solutes
    • INTO the Filtrate
    • Potassium, Ammonium, hydrogen (acid)
    • Bicarbinate ions (base)
  66. By secreting these solutes the acid-base balance concentration can be regulated:
    • Hydrogen (acid)
    • Bicarbonate ions (base)
  67. What is Urine composed of?
    • Water
    • Dissoved Solutes
    • Excess Electrolytes
    • Urea
    • Creatinine
    • Uric Acid
  68. How much water is in Urine?
    95 %
  69. What is the % of dissolved solutes in Urine?
    5 %
  70. Urea is the biproduct of what?
    Protein Metabolism
  71. Creatinine is the biproduct of what?
    Muscle Metabolism
  72. Uric Acid is the biproduct of what?
    Nucleic Acid Metabolism
  73. What hormone is released when the body is dehydrated?
    and from where?
    Antidiuretic Hormone (ADH) from the POSTerior pituitary
  74. ADH does what to increase water reabsorbtion?
    makes the cells of the DCT & CD more permeable to water, whoch allows more water to be reabsorbed (distal convoluted tubules & collecting ducts)
  75. Describe Urine produced during a time of Dehydration:
    Small amount that would be dark yellow
  76. During a period of optimum body water level the _______ stops secreting ADH.
  77. When the body is @ optimal water levels, what does urine look like?
    Diluted Urine, large in volume and light yellow in color
  78. Minimum Urine volume that must be excreted by the kidneys to get rid of metabolic waste and excess is what? how much?
    Obligatory Urine 0.5 L/ day
  79. What covers the body of the urinary bladder ?
    Smooth muscle called Detrusor muscle = involuntary
  80. What is the Trigone of the bladder?
    where the 2 ureters enter the bladder, near the neck
  81. Where is the Internal Urethral Sphincter Muscle found?
    The neck of the Bladder
  82. What type of muscle makes up the neck of the bladder?
    detrusor smooth fibers form the internal urethral sphincter
  83. What type of muscle fibers form the External Urethral Sphincter?
    Skeletal muscle fibers = these are under conscious/ voluntar control
  84. What nerve controls the External Urethral Sphincter?
  85. What is the Micturition Reflex?
    the act of emptying the bladder
  86. Signals from the Sensory Stretch receptors go to the ______ nervous system through the ____ nerve.
    Sympathetic through the Pelvic Nerve
  87. The spinal cord sends the message that is time to empty to the ______ muscles through the ____ nervous syatem.
    Detrusor through the Parasympathetic nervous system
Card Set
Urinary System
A&P II Urirnary