What does the Urinary system Excrete?
What does the Respiratory system Excrete?
What does the Digestive system Excrete?
What does the Integumentary system Excrete?
The active form of Vitamin D is what?
- It stimulates absorption of Calcium
What stimulates the absoption of Calcium?
Vitamin D / Calcitriol
What are the Functions of the Urinary system?
- Excretion of metabolic waste
- Regulation of :
- Blood acidity
- Blood Volume
- Blood Pressure by Renin
- Production of Erythropietin
- Activation of Vitamin D
What hormone stimulates the production of Red Blood Cells?
Erythropietin stimulates bone marrow to produce RBC's
What is Renin?
Enzyme produced in the Kidney to regulate Blood Pressure & Volume
What are the components of the Urinary System?
- Urinary Bladder
What do the Kidneys do?
What do the Ureters do?
Conduction tubes that transport urine toward the bladder
What does the Bladder Do?
Temporarily stores urine prior to elimination
What does the Urethra do?
- conducts urine to the exterior
- In males it also transports semen
What is the Renal Capsule?
Covers the Kidney
Where is the Renal Cortex ?
The outer region of the kidney
What is the Renal Medulla ?
Inner regionof the Kidney (includes the pyramids)
What are the Renal Pyramids ?
Triangle shaped structures found in the Kidneys
Where are the Renal Papilla found?
in the Pyramids of the Kidney @ Apex (tip)
What the Renal Columns ?
coritcal tissue between the pyramids in the Kidneys
What does the Minor Calyx do?
Receives urine from the Papilla
What does the Major Calyx do?
collects urine from 2 or more minor calyces
What does the Renal Pelivs do?
cllects urine from ALL major calyces
What do Ureters do?
Carry urine from the renal pelvis to the bladder
Blood flowing into the kidneys comes through what vessel?
From the Abdomnial Aorta to the Renal Artery
What vessels are located in the kidney beyond the renal artery?
- Segmental Arteries
- Interlobar arteries
- Arcuate Arteries
- Cortical Radiate Arteries
- Afferent Arterioles
Where does blood flow beyond the Afferent Arterioles?
- Efferent Arteriole
- Peritubular Capillaries
- Cortical Radiate Veins
- Arcuate Veins
- Inerlobar Veins
- Renal Vein
What is a nephron and where is it located?
- Microscopic filtering unit of the Kidney, it consists of Renal Corpuscle & Tubules.
- 85% are located int Renal Cortex / 15% in the Pyramids
What does each Nephron do?
Filters blood to make Urine
85% of Nephrons are located in the Cortex, what are these caled?
15% of Nephrons are located in the Pyramids, what are these caled?
The Renal Corpuscle includes what 2 structures?
The Glomerulus & Bowman's Capsule
What is a Glomerulus?
Loops of capillaries located in the Bowman's Capsule
What is a Bowman's Capsule?
The double layer capsule surrounding the Glomerulus
Name the Renal Tubules ?
- Proximal Convoluted Tubule
- Loop of Henle
- Distal Convoluted Tubule
- Collecting Duct
What vessel collects filtrate leaving the Bowman's Capsule?
Proximal Convoluted Tubule
What four processes are needed for Urine formation?
Explain filtration :
High Glomerular capillary bllod pressure (55 mmHg) forces water and diisolved solutes through the glomerular capillary wall into the Bowman's capsular space to form the initial FILTRATE.
What is the pressure of the glomerular capillaries?
What is filtered into the Bowman's capsular space?
- Water & Dissolved Solutes
- NO plasma proteins or blood cells
Filtration is a ________ selective process.
What does Filtrate contian?
- waste products = Urea, Uric Acid
- Useful substances + water, organic nutrients & electrolytes
(RBF) Renal Blood Flow =
- Amount of blood through the kidneys in ONE minute
- about 1200 mL/ minute
Glomerular Blood Flow (GBF) =
- Amount of Filtrate formed by Kidneys in ONE minute
- About 120mL/ minute
How much of renal bllod flow becomes Filtrate?
About 10 %
How long does it take you whole blood to pass through your kidnesy?
about 5 minutes
How is GBF regulated?
By Dilation & Constriction of Afferent & Efferent arteriols
Dilation of afferent arterioles & Constriction efferent arterioles causes what?
- Increased GFR
- this increases the amount of blood entering the capillary/ glomerius to be filtered.
Constriction of afferent arterioles & diliation of effernt areterioles causes what?
What are the 3 methods of regulation for GFR?
- Neural Regulation
- Hormonal Regulation
How does Autoregulation happen?
by the Kidneys themselves
How does Neural Regulation happen?
Autonomic Nervous System
How does Hormonal Regulation happen?
Hormones indirectly affect GFR
Where does most Reabsorbtion take place?
Proximal Convoluted Tubule
During reabsorbtion how is Water reabsorbed?
During Tubular Reabsorbtion how are solutes moved?
- Diffusion from high to low concentrations
- Active trasport uses ATP
- Co-transport hooked to another molecule
- Pinocytosis or cell eating
Each day between _____ & ____ L of filtrate is formed.
150 - 180 Liters
How much Urine is eliminated each day?
How much filtrate is REabsorbed each day?
148 - 178 L
How much H2O is reabsorbed in the Proximal Convoluted Tubules ?
How much H2O is reabsorbed in the Descending limbs of Henley?
How much H2O is reabsorbed in the Ascending lib of Henley?
How much H2O is reabsorbed in the Distal Convoluted Tubules ?
How much H2O is reabsorbed in the collection ducts?
In Tubular Secretion some solutes move from the blood of the peritubular capillaries into what?
name some of the solutes
- INTO the Filtrate
- Potassium, Ammonium, hydrogen (acid)
- Bicarbinate ions (base)
By secreting these solutes the acid-base balance concentration can be regulated:
- Hydrogen (acid)
- Bicarbonate ions (base)
What is Urine composed of?
- Dissoved Solutes
- Excess Electrolytes
- Uric Acid
How much water is in Urine?
What is the % of dissolved solutes in Urine?
Urea is the biproduct of what?
Creatinine is the biproduct of what?
Uric Acid is the biproduct of what?
Nucleic Acid Metabolism
What hormone is released when the body is dehydrated?
and from where?
Antidiuretic Hormone (ADH) from the POSTerior pituitary
ADH does what to increase water reabsorbtion?
makes the cells of the DCT & CD more permeable to water, whoch allows more water to be reabsorbed (distal convoluted tubules & collecting ducts)
Describe Urine produced during a time of Dehydration:
Small amount that would be dark yellow
During a period of optimum body water level the _______ stops secreting ADH.
When the body is @ optimal water levels, what does urine look like?
Diluted Urine, large in volume and light yellow in color
Minimum Urine volume that must be excreted by the kidneys to get rid of metabolic waste and excess is what? how much?
Obligatory Urine 0.5 L/ day
What covers the body of the urinary bladder ?
Smooth muscle called Detrusor muscle = involuntary
What is the Trigone of the bladder?
where the 2 ureters enter the bladder, near the neck
Where is the Internal Urethral Sphincter Muscle found?
The neck of the Bladder
What type of muscle makes up the neck of the bladder?
detrusor smooth fibers form the internal urethral sphincter
What type of muscle fibers form the External Urethral Sphincter?
Skeletal muscle fibers = these are under conscious/ voluntar control
What nerve controls the External Urethral Sphincter?
What is the Micturition Reflex?
the act of emptying the bladder
Signals from the Sensory Stretch receptors go to the ______ nervous system through the ____ nerve.
Sympathetic through the Pelvic Nerve
The spinal cord sends the message that is time to empty to the ______ muscles through the ____ nervous syatem.
Detrusor through the Parasympathetic nervous system