1. The reactive properties or chemical behavior of an atom depend on the number of

    D. electrons in the outer valence shell in the atom
  2. What do the four elemetns most abundant in life-carbon, oxygen, hydrogen, and nitrogen-have in common?

    D. they all have unpaired electron in their valence shells
  3. In a single molecule of water, the two hydrogen atoms are bonded to a single oxygen atom by

    E. polar covalent bonds
  4. What do cohesion, surface tension, and adhesion have in common with reference to water?

    C. all are properties related to hydrogen bonding
  5. Water's high specific heat is mainly a consequence of the

    D. absorption and release of heat when hydrogen bonds break and form
  6. Which type of molecule would be most abundant in a typical prokaryotic or eukaryotic cell?

    E. water
  7. What is the reason why hydrocarbons are not soluble in water?

    A. the C-H bond is nonpolar
  8. Recent research sugest that side effects from Ritalin, the drug used to treat attention deficit disorder, may be caused by contamination of enantiomers, or molecules that

    C. are mirror images of one another
  9. Carbohydrates normally function in animals as

    E. energy-storage molecules
  10. (FIGURE MISSING) The molecule shown in Figure 5.3 is a

    B. unsaturated fatty acid
  11. The tertiary structure of a protein is the

    B. three-dimensional shape
  12. Dehydration reactions are used in forming which of the following compounds?

    D. A, B, and C are correct
  13. Which of the following illustrates hydrolysis?

    D. the reaction of a fat to form glycerol and fatty acids with the utilization of water
  14. The element nitrogen is present in all of the following except

    E. monosaccharides
  15. (FIGURE MISSING) Which of the following molecules acts as building blocks of polypeptides?

    A. 2,7, and 8
  16. (FIGURE MISSING) Which of the following molecules could form a fat (or triacylglycerol) as a result of a dehydration reaction?

    B. 9 and 10
  17. (FIGURE MISSING) Which of the following molecules has a functional group that frequently is involved in maintaining the tertiary structure of a protein?

    B. 2
  18. (FIGURE MISSING) Which of the following molecules consists of a hydrophilic "head" region and a hydrophobic "tail" region?

    D. 5
  19. Metabolism is best described as
    Asynthesis of macromolecules
    B. breakdown of macromolecules
    C. control of enzyme activity
    D. A and B
    E. A, B, and C
    E. A, B, and C
  20. Why is ATP an important molecule in metabolism?

    D. two of the above
  21. Which of the following reactions could be coupled to the reaction ATP + H2O---> ADP + Pi(-7.3kcal/mol)?

    A. E + Pi ---> EP (+5 kcal/mol)
  22. All of the following are associated with the extracellular matrix of animal cells except:

    E. cellulose
  23. Which of the following is not found in a prokaryotic cell?

    C. endoplasmic reticulum
  24. Large numbers of ribosomes are present in cells that specialize in producing which of the following molecules?

    A. proteins
  25. Of the following, which is probably the most common route for membrane flow in the endomembrane system?

    A. roughER--->vesicles--->golgi--->plasma membrane
  26. Organelles that contain DNA include
    A. ribosomes
    B. mitochodria
    C. chloroplasts
    D. Only B and C are correct
    E. A, B, and C are correct
    D Only B and C are correct
  27. Which of the following is not known function of the cytoskeleton?

    A. to maintain a critical limit on cell size
  28. What is one of the ways that the membranes of winter wheat are able to remain fluid when it is extremely cold?

    D. by increasing the percentage of unsaturated phospholipds in the membrane
  29. All of the following statements abount membrane structure and function are true except:

    C. both sides of a membrane are identical in structure and function
  30. Which of the following statements is correct about diffusion?

    B. it is a passive process in which molecules move from a region of higher concentration to a region of lower concentration
  31. (FIGURE MISSING) At the beginning of the experiment,

    A. side A is hypotonic to side B
  32. (FIGURE MISSING) If you examine side A after 3 days, you should find:

    B. a decrease in the concentration of NaCl and a decrease in the water level
  33. Which of the following statements concerning the breakdown of glucose to CO2 and water is (are) true?

    D. A and B only are correct
  34. Glycolysis is believed to be one of the most ancient of metalbolic processes. Which statement below least supports this idea?

    A. if run in reverse, glycolysis will build glucose molecules
  35. Which process in eukaryotic cells will normally proceed whether O2 is present or absent?

    C. glycolysis
  36. Cellular respiration harvests the most chemical energy from which process?

    C. transferring electron from organic molecules to oxygen
  37. The color of light least effective in drining photosynthesis is

    C. green
  38. What is the primary function of the light reactions of photosynthesis?

    E. to produce ATP and NADPH
  39. The chemiosomotic process in chloroplasts involves the

    E. establishment of a proton gradient
  40. All of the following statements are correct regarding the Calvin cycle of photosynthesis except:

    C. these reactions begin soon after sundown and end before sunrise
  41. From the perspective of the cell receiving the message, the three stages of cell signaling are

    E. signal reception, signal transduction, and cellular response
  42. Delta G1=100 S=0 G2=0 M=0
    The best conclusion concerning delta is that the cells

    A. are actually in the G0 phase
  43. Gamma S=48 Beta S=24
    Of the following, the best conclusion concerning the difference between the S phases for beta and gamma is that

    A. gamma contains more DNA than beta
  44. If mammalian cells receive a go-ahead signal at the G1 checkpoint, they will

    E. complete the cycle and divide
  45. Which of the following is true concerning cancer cells?

    C. A, B, and C only are true
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