1. Audience Analysis
    the systematic gathering of information about audience members in an effort to learn everything possible about them that is relevant to the topic
  2. Audience Demographics
    social categories into which people can be grouped

    demo information: survey, check box

  3. Audience Psychographics
    • -seek to determine attitude, beliefs and opinions people have
    • -more difficult to attain
    • -questions that require elaboration (sentence structure answers)
  4. Contiguous Audience
    • -the people sitting/standing in front of you, while you give your speech
    • -immediate audience
  5. Media Audience
    • -the extended audience via TV, radio or other electronic/print media
    • -don't always know whose watching
    • -caterers know their audience well
  6. Methods to analyze your audience
    • -get demographic and psychographic information from an event sponsor
    • -ask sample members what they think
  7. 3 Types of Questions
    • 1. Leading questions: prompt interviewee to respond a certain way
    • 2. Open questions: broad, allow great deal of lee way
    • 3. Closed questions: limit the range of possible answers
  8. Audience Adaption
    • -adjust your topic, purpose, language and communication style to avoid offending or alienating audience members
    • -have respect and regard for others, while still being ourselves
  9. Hostile Audiences
    • -could be a heckler
    • -audience members who intentionally disrupt the speech to make the speaker look bad

  10. 4 Steps in Selecting and Researching Topic
    • 1. Audience Analysis
    • 2. Specify Time Constraints
    • 3. Select a Topic
    • 4. Narrow the Topic
  11. 5 Specified Time Constraints
    • 1. relatively simple areas
    • 2. interfere with other speakers if you go over time
    • 3. over time leaves a bad impression of yourself
    • 4. can damage credibility
    • 5. nothing will hurt you more, than talking too much or for too long
  12. Select a Topic
    • 1. brainstorming
    • - jot down a list of topics as fast as you can without stopping to evaluate
    • - some may seem foolish or absurd but write them down anyway
    • - KEY: avoid the tendency to reject ideas early
    • 2. mapping
    • 3. major source for topic selection: YOURSELF
    • 4. choose something familiar to yourself
    • - cut research, allows personal connection
    • - be interested/ passionate
    • 5. speaker has the ability to make the presentation powerful, fascinating, and gripping
  13. Narrow a Topic
    • -remember timing
    • -prevents you from wondering aimlessly
  14. Use Evidence When Researching a Topic
    facts or opinions attested to or endorsed by someone other than the speaker
  15. Relevant Evidence
    • -audience should not spend time thinking how something fits with content of speech
    • -should be obvious
    • -the degree of association between reference and topic
  16. Recent Evidence
  17. Credible Evidence
    should come from an authoritative source
  18. Informative Speaking
    • -teaching the audience to think about something in a new/different way
    • -involves changing the audience's factual beliefs about some topic or issue
  19. 3 Goals of Informative Speeches
    • 1. Communicating new and unfamiliar information
    • 2. Extending what the audience already knows
    • 3. Updating Old Information
    • -reinterpreting what the audience already knows
    • -attempt to correct misconceptions while altering what the audience already believes about a topic
  20. Briefings and Reports
    design to provide recently available information to an audience with a general understanding of the topic
  21. Lectures
    instructional presentation that usually provides new information about a topic
  22. Demonstration speeches
    a how to speech
  23. Training Presentations
    teaches a concept for how to complete a task with an acceptable degree of accuracy
  24. Purpose of introduction
    • 1. Establish credibility
    • 2. Entice and invite
    • 3. Preview material
  25. Establish Credibility
    credibility: judgement on the part of the audience about the believability of a speaker

    • 1. competence
    • 2. trustworthiness
    • 3. extraversion
    • 4. composure
    • 5. sociability

    nonverbal behavior and clothing effects our credibility
  26. Entice and invite
    • 1. find a way to connect to the audience
    • 2. use dramatic devices
    • -- humorous story, starting statement, little known fact
    • -- firmness and flexibility
  27. Preview Material
    • -tell them what you are going to tell them
    • -signposts
  28. Purpose of Conclusion
    • 1. review material : tell them what you told them; signposts
    • 2. leave the audience interested and wanting to hear more
  29. Personal Stories
    help audience have a sense for shared background
  30. Emotional Appeals
    insight fear, passion or pity
  31. Famous Quotes
    relying on sayings or phrases from famous people, politicians or entertainers to hold the audience's attention
  32. 4 Things to Avoid
    • 1. cliches: common, overused expressions
    • 2. disclaimers: statements which deny any responsibility for a faulty presentation
    • 3. apologies: assumes responsibility for not being able to contribute too much
    • 4. don't ever say "I'm Done."
  33. Visual Aids
    any supplemental visual device a speaker can use to help clarify for the audience the message of a speech
  34. supplemental
    to reinforce or extend a whole (the speech)
  35. 5 Different Reasons why we may use a visual aid
    • 1. To clarify something important
    • 2. to make the speech more interesting
    • 3. increase audience retention
    • 4. help save time
    • 5. help explain the topic
  36. Line graph
    Image Upload 1
    • - a diagram that shows the relationship between two quantitative variables
    • - change over time is well-displayed
    • - how one variable changes with respect to other
  37. bar graph
    Image Upload 2
    • - explains quantities of values of data in height or length to the qualities represented
    • - good for showing differences in sets of figures during the same or brief time span
  38. pie graph
    Image Upload 3
    used to illustrate how parts of something relate to a whole
  39. table
    Image Upload 4
    orderly arrangement of numbers, words or symbols in rows or columns
  40. charts Upload 5
    • -organization chart
    • -understanding hierarchy
  41. word charts
    • -text alone, no pictures
    • -lists main ideas of speech
  42. objects
    physical item that you show the audience
  43. photographs
    has to be at least 8 x 10
  44. 5 Ways to Present your VA
    • 1. Poster boards + photos are common
    • 2. Objects
    • 3. Transparency
    • 4. Video/Audio (VHS or DVD)
    • 5. PowerPoint

    • *rare that the VA is visible the whole time
    • *put it away or down at some point
  45. 4 Guidelines for a VA
    • 1. Do not over use your VA
    • 2. Use a VA that requires little to no explanation ; not to complex
    • 3. Easy to see
    • 4. Remove VA form sight when you are through
  46. Organization
    • -is a way to put your thoughts and materials together in a logical manner
    • -it helps make sense of the speech for yourself and for the audience
  47. Linear Logic
    • -speech that leads the audience through ordered steps
    • -the speaker goes to great lengths to make the message obvious
  48. Types of Linear Patterns
    • 1. topical - categorized speech
    • 2. cause and effect - how the cause brings about effects
    • 3. problem-solution
    • 4. chronological - how things are presented through time
    • 5. spacial - when using a visual aid
  49. Configural Logic
    • - a speech organized in a configural pattern is a speech not organized in a linear pattern
    • - the message is subtle
    • - the purpose is not spelled out
    • - the audience must draw its own conclusion

  50. Types of Configural Patterns
    • 1. Narrative - you tell a story, audiences draws conclusion
    • 2. Web - speech is centered around a core idea or theme, but you return to the main idea after each point
    • 3. Problem-no solution - informing a problem, audiences draws conclusion
    • 4. multiple perspectives - offering perspectives, audiences draws conclusion
  51. Outlining your speech
    • 1. full content outlines - full sentence ideas
    • 2. short phrase outlines - ideas worded short
Card Set
Exam 2